Purple Sulphur Bacteria

Purple Phototrophic Bacteria AKA Purple Sulfur Bacteria. The heat sensitive, anaerobic causes of volcanism. …

Purple Phototrophic Bacteria

These are phototrophic bacteria which means that they get their energy from light. Unlike green plants and cyanobacteria however, they do not give off oxygen in the process. This is described as anoxygenic photosynthesis. To do this they contain pigments very like chlorophyll called bacteriochlorophylls as well as a number of carotenoid pigments. It is these carotenoid pigments that give Purple Phototrophic Bacteria their colours – purple, red and brown. They are divided into two groups depending whether or not they use hydrogen sulphide, H2S, as an electron donor for carbon dioxide reduction. If they do, then they are called Purple Sulphur Bacteria, if they don't do this under normal conditions, then they are known as Purple Non-sulphur Bacteria.

Purple sulphur bacteria normally respire anaerobically and the presence of oxygen hinders their growth. Their favourite habitat is in the illuminated but anoxic zones of aquatic environments. Typical genera are Ectothiorhodospira and Chromatium. Some species are extremely halophilic (salt loving) and can be found in soda lakes and salterns.

In contrast to this group is the Purple Non-sulphur bacteria, though these were originally named because it was thought that they could not use sulphide in their metabolism it is now known that they can if necessary. However, the levels of sulphides utilized by Purple Sulphur Bacteria are as lethally toxic to Purple Non-sulphur bacteria as they are to most other species of bacteria. A few species are capable of anaerobic growth though most species are aerobic. Most species can utilise a variety of carbon sources from carbon dioxide through simple sugars to aromatic compounds and are also phototrophic, ie they derive their energy from light. Like all groups in this section they are morphologically diverse (have very different shapes); they can be rods, curved rods, ovoid, flagellated, ring-shaped or spiral. Typical genera are Rhodospirillum and Rhodopseudomonas with 15 species each and Rhodobacter with 8 known species.

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On the metabolism of the purple sulphur bacteria in organic media

F. M. Muller1, 2
(1) Hopkins Marine Station of Stanford University, California
(2) Laboratory for Microbiology of the Technical University, Delft, Holland

Received: 15 November 1932

Summary

1. The purple sulphur bacteria are able to develop in media containing only one simple, nitrogen-free organic compound, in the absence of oxidizable sulphur compounds.

2. Radiant energy is indispensable for development in these media.

3. A quantitative chemical investigation has been carried out of the metabolism in cultures containing
lactate, pyruvate, acetate, succinate, malate or butyrate as the organic substrate.

4. In these cultures practically no metabolic products other than relatively small amounts of CO2 have been detected; in the butyrate cultures CO2 is taken up instead of being formed.

5. By determining the carbon content of the bacterial substance synthesized in the cultures, it has been shown that in all probability the substrate is completely converted into cell material and CO2, i. o. w. that the assimilation predominates in the metabolism.

6. The differences in the amount of CO2 formed (or taken up) per unit of substrate consumed in cultures with different substrates are caused by the different oxidation values of the various substrates, the average oxidation value of the cell material of the bacteria being approximately the same with all substrates.

7. Since a consideration of assimilation in general leads to the insight that the greater majority of organic cell constituents is formed from the substrate via pyruvic acid, the ways in which this acid can be formed from the various substrates used in the experiments have been discussed.

8. The conversion of the substrate into pyruvic acid involves one or more dehydrogenations; a consideration of the hydrogen acceptors which may effect this dehydrogenation shows that CO2 must play a prominent part as an acceptor in this process.

9. In connection with point 2 this leads to the conclusion that photosynthetic processes are involved in the metabolism of the purple sulphur bacteria in organic media.

10. In the equation for photosynthesis in general:
$${text{CO}}_{text{2}} {text{ + }} {text{2H}}_{text{2}} {text{A}} to {text{CH}}_{text{2}} {text{O}} {text{ + }} {text{2A}} {text{ + }} {text{H}}_{text{2}} {text{O}}$$
H2A may now be replaced by organic substances as well as by H2S or H2O.

The missing equation unformatted is:

CO2 + 2H2A > CH2O + 2A + H2O

And from that you can see immediately that this animal is the source of our petrochemicals industry. And that despite the aegis of geology adamantly refusing to believe the work of Professor Gold we are in more danger of being robbed by Bushco after we get rid of the bast… the monkey, than we are in danger of losing the industry.

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Unfortunately I have been chosen to win an iPod so I can not say more at the moment as I need to go and update my security and clean my computer.

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18 thoughts on “Purple Sulphur Bacteria

  1. CREATED BY THE MAGMA OF THE EARTH.

    Kantrowitz turned to the geologist beside him and asked, "Do you really believe that petroleum is a fossil fuel?" The man said,"Certainly" and all four of them joined in. Kantrowitz listened quietly and then said, "The deepest fossil ever found has been at about 16,000 feet below sea level; yet we are getting oil from wells drilled to 30,000 and more. How could fossil fuel get down there? If it was once living matter, it had to be on the surface. If it did turn into petroleum, at or near the surface,how could it ever get to such depths? What is heavier Oil or Water?" Water: so it would go down, not oil. Oil would be on top, if it were "organic" and "lighter." "Oil is neither." They all agreed water was heavier, and therefore if there was some crack or other open area for this "Organic matter" to go deep into the magma of Earth, water would have to go first and oil would be left nearer the surface. This is reasonable. Even if we do agree that "magma" is a "crude mixture of minerals or organic matters, in a thin pasty state" this does not make it petroleum, and if it were petroleum it would have stayed near the surface as heavier items, i.e. water seeped below. My D. Van Nostrand "Scientific Encyclopedia" says "Magma is the term for molten material. A natural, complex, liquid, high temperature, silicate solution ancestral to all igneous rocks,both intrusive and effusive. The origin of Magma is not known." My "Oxford English Dictionary" does not even have the word "Magma." Some years ago I wrote two or three pages that appeared in theMcGraw Hill Yearbook of Science and Technology, i.e. "Railroad Engineering." Even that source is a bit uncertain about the"origin of petroleum" to wit: "Less than 1% of the organic matter that originates in or is transported to the marine environment is eventually incorporated into ocean sediment," and "Most petroleum is formed during catagenesis (undefined anywhere). If sufficient organic matter is present oceanic sediments that undergo this process are potential petroleum sources. Deeply buried marine organic matter yields mainly oil, whereas land plant material yields mainly gas." (Their idea of "deeply buried" is the "out.") All this leaves us no where. I still go with Kantrowitz. Since oil is lighter than water, everywhere on Earth, there is no way that petroleum could be an organic, fossil fuel that is created on or near the surface, and penetrate Earth ahead of water. Oil must originate far below and gradually work its way up into well-depth areas accessable to surface drilling. It comes from far below. Therefore, petroleum is not a "Fossil" fuel with a surface or near surface origin. It was made to be thought a "Fossil" fuel by the Nineteenth oil producers to create the concept that it was of limited supply and therefore extremely valuable. This fits with the "Depletion"allowance philosophical scam. During one of our C.S.I.S. "International Nights" (1978) the Common Market Energy boss, M. Montibrial of France, told us that while petroleum was being marketed then for $20.00 per barrel or more, it cost no more than 25 cents per barrel at the well-head. There is our petroleum problem! We were paying more than $1.50-$1.60 per gallon, one 42nd of a barrel, at that time. Interested folks need to learn more about the Chartered Institute of Transport, and not waste their time with OPEC, the "Cover" story. Those who pumped the Pennsylvania wells "dry" during the late eighteen hundreds saved what they had for those better days. L. Fletcher Prouty

  2. I was developing my own explanation about this from some half remembered discoveries about Prof Gold. I remembered a news article on his discovery of oil under granite in the Swedish seas. (Baltic?)Or maybe it was a well elsewhere supplied by Sweden?That is all I knew of it, that and that in Yucatan in the Cenotes (ken-oh-tehs) a series of water filled interconnected caverns (similar in shape to a volcanic cauldron) there are layers of hydrogen sulphide in the reservoirs.Then there is the behaviour of the geologists I met on sci.geo.earthquakes, who, rather than discuss the works of this professor sought to disgrace the man for not being the first to suggest the tide.Rather than admit the merest notion in the matter they carried on regardless int heir land on no hope.Subduction either takes place or it doesn't.They can cause earthquakes or not as they will.And they can be molten flows or red hot rivers or not as their cases may be.But they can not be any two or more of the three.Think about it.The site I got the logical conception from:http://www.rense.com/general54/moreevi.htmis riddled with stupefying conspiracy dogma.As it happens the idea of helium being washed into upward drifting streams of petroleum is not the best explanation of the helium yields from oil wells.The simper explanation is that the helium comes from the radio decay that supplies purple sprouting bacteria with the needed radiance to turn carbonates into clathrates.All we need to know now is how does radio active material occur in the first place.And the answer to that lies in the shape of volcanic chambers. They are concentric rings of rock and cavity. It is as if the bacteria has rotted its way through a mountain.So maybe the volcano needs to be a mountain in the first place. But Paricutin was not a mountain until it became, overnight, a volcano.It is all very confusing.But interesting…No?

  3. Paint is made from many different types of organic materials, bacteria probably being one of them. I used to remember many of the paints and what they were made of. Some of the paints can be toxic and, the more toxic (the more cancer causing they are), the more expensive they tend to be. I try not to buy these. However, one of my favorite colors was a Dioxa….something Purple. Another one was a red orange color. This one went bad. After a few years of not using it, I opened up the container and the smell just about knocked me over.

  4. I don't know. I'll have to redo some research on the paints as I remember very little. I just know that many artists where surgical gloves when they paint. I don't but I don't get the paint all over my hands either unless I'm using oil sticks which are like big crayons of oil paint and are non-toxic. I just happen to have a tube of Cadmium Vermilion oil paint on my computer desk….I'm trying to figure out why it's here and not in my studio. The ingredients of it are "pure cadmium Seleno Sulphide precipated with barium sulfate ground in pure highly refined linseed oil." This was an expensive one, any of the Cadmium ones are, and for a 1.25 fl. oz. tube it costs around $12.00.

  5. I used to work in a chemistry laborartory. Most of the stuff in there was pretty harmless but I can remember the colourful chromium and cadmium stuff.It was University teaching lab which had a permanent smell of the first experiment that science kids did on their induction term.I think the idea was to permeate them and their clothes with a foul stink so they leaarned to be more careful with the future stuff they did.Just occasionally you'd be warned about something like pydirene or some other carcinogen. It wasn't closely related to anything in the real world. And it was peopled by arses.I never did a better job than when I handed my notice in there. I never had a job that last as long ever again. I wonder if the people they turned out ever did anything useful. I've never thought about it.I worked in a factory with a girl who had been a lab technician too and she was a total loser. A really horrible czjd. They jut don't live in the real world.Mind you some people are like that whatever they do.

  6. My grandfather used to paint and I inherited his collection of oil paints – nasty stuff – Some of the tubes had literally exploded inside the case.

  7. I know that linseed oil is self ignitable. It is like a polyester resin a naturally occurring one. It reacts with oxygen to form a thermosetting plastic skin.Maybe it reacts with chemicals in the paint. Ores are used widely in red paints. Maybe it took out the oxides? In that case, it's hard to understand why they think they will last several lifetimes applied to canvas.

  8. This should be interesting when the English translation is published: "Thermodynamics of protein structure and folding."The opposite of photosynthesis takes place in them and oncwe the crystalography is understood they can be used in nano computers.(I think they will be developed by the space industry interests, as they will have a fantastic military use in transposing high explosives from us to them (and visa versa.))Haven't we come a long way since Da Vinci messed up the Last Supper? Talk about Al Fresco among yourselves for a while, while I dig deeper. (I may be gone some time, as I am still trying to find out who let the U^n rods out.)

  9. Biophysical chemistry, energy, conservation of energy, molecular concentration, concentration 3rd amounts of material, gases, macroscopic interpretation of pressure, state of an ideal gas, approximations, gas mixtures, mole break and partial pressure of fundamental ideas of thermodynamics, condition functions, definitions of thermodynamic characteristics….:faint: I'll have to get back with you on that. I know very little about chemistry, although I understand that heating and cooling of mixed compounds causes certain reactions. Da Vinci's egg yolk and vinegar painting was nothing short of an experimental disaster. To take 4 years of creating this was nothing short of his knowing he had made a botched painting since the paint flaked so easily once it was dry.

  10. Young men get over flat chested women in their mid teens. But somehow the fact that men of any age or shape are attracted to women of all ages and shapes never filters across the divide.It is very strange.You have good looking fat women and good looking thin women but women who are thin think they need to be fat to be attractive and women who are thin think they need to be fat to be attractive.Edit:You have good looking fat women and good looking thin women but women who are thin think they need to be fat to be attractive and women who are fat think they need to be thin to be attractive.Both types of fat women and both types of thin women think men don't understand them.Well, we could if we wanted to but quite frankly, it isn't worth the bother. It's just not worth the effort. What is to be gained from understanding women?If you spent the same amount of time learning about cars you'd know exactly what kind of a ride you were going to get and why and know what to do about unsatisfactory results.Try that with a woman and she'll be upset.If you want to master a ship you must learn about the seas and the stars and have plenty of money besides. Try that with a woman and you will spend the bloody lot and no profit.

  11. Men and women are two different species. For one to understand the other is difficult, because men think logically, and women think emotionally. To think we could attempt to understand each other requires mass amounts of energy. 😆 Weather, I found this bit of information about Sellafield:

    "Missing Plutonium On February 17, 2005, the UK Atomic Energy Authority reported that 29.6 kg (65.3 lb) of plutonium, enough to make seven nuclear bombs, was unaccounted for in auditing records at the Sellafield nuclear fuel reprocessing plant. British Nuclear Group blamed the discrepancy on dodgy paperwork rather than a physical loss of nuclear materials. IAEA regulations allow a discrepancy of up to 1% at reprocessing plants as the product rarely matches the feed. This allowed the issue to be quietly dropped without a satisfactory conclusion."

    from Greater Manchester & District CND .

  12. The nuclear industry is by its military uses a secret society. Which is why it is hated so widely. And why they get away with murder.The Scottish one now closed (I forget where) is still strewing washed up plutonium onto its beaches. A hell of a lot of stuff went down the pans on these things as they were the worst engineered processors of the era.Britain was still financially impoverished and all sorts of cross government internecine tricks went on between the CIA and the Tory party in order to maintain the Eaton Management long past its sell by date.IIRC the one in Kent caught fire and it was nearly as bad as Chernobyl, only it went up the chimney as Carbon Dioxide. Nobody said a word about it at the time.I actually think that nuclear power has a redeemable future but it will require an unmanageable amount of PR to save it. And if you can't trust your government or your bank what on earth are you going to trust to look after what is in all honesty a gianormous bomb?It takes 10 KG of 3% enriched Uranium/Plutonium to make a nuclear device. A bomb most terrorists could make if they had access.12 kg would get them a working nuclear warhead. It wouldn't need to be over engineered. They say they can get one working that only has a few pounds at the pointed end. (Of course they don't "say" to me.)But we know that some bacteria can thrive in the vicinity of it. You can blast apart some singled celled stuff with microwave and huge amounts of heat but it will reform and survive.Bacteria thrive in magma chambers at temperatures over 300 degree C. Flamingos feed on the algae that grows in caustic ponds so strong that the mud can turn to concrete on their feet.We know nothing and think we know all.

  13. Pile 1 still contains about 15 tonnes of highly unstable uranium fuel, and final completion of the decommissioning is not expected until at least 2037.

    almost word for word except for that last bit I had no idea about.15 tonnes is 15 tousand Kg. that's 1000 nuclear bombs any time the devil wants to play with it.Nice link, ta.

  14. The conclusion of the matter so far as is known is that organic life forms can emit heat. Some of the range of radiation is in the optical frequencies.Most of solar and stellar output is in this range, as is to be expected from a Creator…So it stands to reason that these subterranean life forms make the most of some sort of optical symbiosis.And in extremis, things can go wrong with the set up releasing heat that might be a cause of disasters.We haven't even begun to explore this life form. Hell, almost nothing is known of fungi. And they are a well know source of bio-luminescence.

  15. From what I know about bio-luminescence, not too many fungi emit this strange source of light. If it could be grown in the right conditions – between window sized sheets of glass, we could possibly come up with a living light source rather than using coal.

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