Texas T

I'm a sucker for a western pity this ****** was such a bigot. …

From "The Outlet" by Andy Adams:

At the close of the civil war the need for a market for the surplus
cattle of Texas was as urgent as it was general. There had been numerous
experiments in seeking an outlet, and there is authority for the
statement that in 1857 Texas cattle were driven to Illinois. Eleven
years later forty thousand head were sent to the mouth of Red River
in Louisiana, shipped by boat to Cairo, Illinois, and thence inland by
rail. Fever resulted, and the experiment was never repeated. To the west
of Texas stretched a forbidding desert, while on the other hand, nearly
every drive to Louisiana resulted in financial disaster to the drover.
The republic of Mexico, on the south, afforded no relief, as it was
likewise overrun with a surplus of its own breeding. Immediately before
and just after the war, a slight trade had sprung up in cattle between
eastern points on Red River and Baxter Springs, in the southeast corner
of Kansas. The route was perfectly feasible, being short and entirely
within the reservations of the Choctaws and Cherokees, civilized
Indians. This was the only route to the north; for farther to the
westward was the home of the buffalo and the unconquered, nomadic
tribes. A writer on that day, Mr. Emerson Hough, an acceptable
authority, says: "The civil war stopped almost all plans to market the
range cattle, and the close of that war found the vast grazing lands
of Texas fairly covered with millions of cattle which had no actual
or determinate value. They were sorted and branded and herded after a
fashion, but neither they nor their increase could be converted into
anything but more cattle. The demand for a market became imperative."

This was the situation at the close of the '50's and meanwhile there
had been no cessation in trying to find an outlet for the constantly
increasing herds. Civilization was sweeping westward by leaps and
bounds, and during the latter part of the '60's and early '70's, a
market for a very small percentage of the surplus was established at
Abilene, Ellsworth, and Wichita, being confined almost exclusively to
the state of Kansas. But this outlet, slight as it was, developed the
fact that the transplanted Texas steer, after a winter in the north,
took on flesh like a native, and by being double-wintered became a
marketable beef. It should be understood in this connection that Texas,
owing to climatic conditions, did not mature an animal into marketable
form, ready for the butcher's block. Yet it was an exceptional country
for breeding, the percentage of increase in good years reaching the
phenomenal figures of ninety-five calves to the hundred cows. At this
time all eyes were turned to the new Northwest, which was then looked
upon as the country that would at last afford the proper market.
Railroads were pushing into the domain of the buffalo and Indian; the
rush of emigration was westward, and the Texan was clamoring for an
outlet for his cattle. It was written in the stars that the Indian and
buffalo would have to stand aside.

Philanthropists may deplore the destruction of the American bison, yet
it was inevitable. Possibly it is not commonly known that the general
government had under consideration the sending of its own troops to
destroy the buffalo. Yet it is a fact, for the army in the West fully
realized the futility of subjugating the Indians while they could draw
subsistence from the bison. The well-mounted aborigines hung on the
flanks of the great buffalo herds, migrating with them, spurning all
treaty obligations, and when opportunity offered murdering the advance
guard of civilization with the fiendish atrocity of carnivorous animals.
But while the government hesitated, the hide-hunters and the railroads
solved the problem, and the Indian's base of supplies was destroyed.

Then began the great exodus of Texas cattle. The red men were easily
confined on reservations, and the vacated country in the Northwest
became cattle ranges. The government was in the market for large
quantities of beef with which to feed its army and Indian wards. The
maximum year's drive was reached in 1884, when nearly eight hundred
thousand cattle, in something over three hundred herds, bound for the
new Northwest, crossed Red River, the northern boundary of Texas. Some
slight idea of this exodus can be gained when one considers that in the
above year about four thousand men and over thirty thousand horses were
required on the trail, while the value of the drive ran into millions.
The history of the world can show no pastoral movement in comparison.
The Northwest had furnished the market–the outlet for Texas.

From "Reed Anthony, Cowman" by Andy Adams:

Finally an audience with the President was granted. The Western
delegation was increased by senators and representatives until the
committee numbered an even dozen. Many of the latter were personal
friends and ardent supporters of the chief executive. The rangemen
were introduced, and we proceeded at once to the matter at issue. A
congressman from New York stated the situation clearly, not mincing
his words in condemning the means and procedure by which this order
was secured, and finally asking for its revocation, or a modification
that would permit the evacuation of the country without injury to the
owners and their herds. Major Hunter, in replying to a question of the
President, stated our position: that we were in no sense intruders,
that we paid our rental in advance, with the knowledge and sanction of
the two preceding Secretaries of the Interior, and only for lack of
precedent was their indorsement of our leases withheld. It soon became
evident that countermanding the order was out of the question, as
to vacillate or waver in a purpose, right or wrong, was not a
characteristic of the chief executive. Our next move was for a
modification of the order, as its terms required us to evacuate that
fall, and every cowman present accented the fact that to move cattle
in the mouth of winter was an act that no man of experience would
countenance. Every step, the why and wherefore, must be explained to
the President, and at the request of the committee, I went into detail
in making plain what the observations of my life had taught me of the
instincts and habits of cattle,–why in the summer they took to
the hills, mesas, and uplands, where the breezes were cooling and
protected them from insect life; their ability to foretell a storm in
winter and seek shelter in coulees and broken country. I explained
that none of the cattle on the Cheyenne and Arapahoe reservation
were native to that range, but were born anywhere from three to five
hundred miles to the south, fully one half of them having arrived
that spring; that to acquaint an animal with its new range, in cattle
parlance to "locate" them, was very important; that every practical
cowman moved his herds to a new range with the grass in the spring, in
order that ample time should be allowed to acclimate and familiarize
them with such shelters as nature provided to withstand the storms of
winter. In concluding, I stated that if the existent order could be so
modified as to permit all through cattle and those unfit for market
to remain on their present range for the winter, we would cheerfully
evacuate the country with the grass in the spring. If such relief
could be consistently granted, it would no doubt save the lives of
hundreds and thousands of cattle.

The President evidently was embarrassed by the justice of our prayer.
He consulted with members of the committee, protesting that he should
be spared from taking what would be considered a backward step, and
after a stormy conference with intimate friends, lasting fully an
hour, he returned and in these words refused to revoke or modify his
order: "If I had known," said he, "what I know now, I never would have
made the order; but having made it, I will stand by it."

Laying aside all commercial considerations, we had made our entreaty
in behalf of dumb animals, and the President's answer angered a
majority of the committee. I had been rebuked too often in the past
by my associates easily to lose my temper, and I naturally looked at
those whose conscience balked at paying tribute, while my sympathies
were absorbed for the future welfare of a quarter-million cattle
affected by the order. We broke into groups in taking our leave,
and the only protest that escaped any one was when the York State
representative refused the hand of the executive, saying, "Mr.
President, I have my opinion of a man who admits he is wrong and
refuses to right it." Two decades have passed since those words,
rebuking wrong in high places, were uttered, and the speaker has since
passed over to the silent majority. I should feel that these memoirs
were incomplete did I not mention the sacrifice and loss of prestige
that the utterance of these words cost, for they were the severance of
a political friendship that was never renewed.

The autocratic order removing the cattle from the Cheyenne and
Arapahoe reservation was born in iniquity and bore a harvest unequaled
in the annals of inhumanity. With the last harbor of refuge closed
against us, I hastened back and did all that was human to avert the
impending doom, every man and horse available being pressed into
service. Our one hope lay in a mild winter, and if that failed us the
affairs of the company would be closed by the merciless elements. Once
it was known that the original order had not been modified, and
in anticipation of a flood of Western cattle, the markets broke,
entailing a serious commercial loss. Every hoof of single and double
wintered beeves that had a value in the markets was shipped regardless
of price, while I besought friends in the Cherokee Strip for a refuge
for those unfit and our holding of through cattle. Fortunately the
depreciation in live stock and the heavy loss sustained the previous
winter had interfered with stocking the Outlet to its fall capacity,
and by money, prayers, and entreaty I prevailed on range owners and
secured pasturage for seventy-five thousand head. Long before the
shipping season ended I pressed every outfit belonging to the firm on
the Eagle Chief into service, and began moving out the through cattle
to their new range. Squaw winter and snow-squalls struck us on the
trail, but with a time-limit hanging over our heads, and rather than
see our cattle handled by nigger soldiers, we bore our burdens, if not
meekly, at least in a manner consistent with our occupation. I have
always deplored useless profanity, yet it was music to my ears to
hear the men arraign our enemies, high and low, for our present
predicament. When the last beeves were shipped, a final round-up was
made, and we started out with over fifty thousand cattle in charge of
twelve outfits. Storms struck us en route, but we weathered them, and
finally turned the herds loose in the face of a blizzard.

The removed cattle, strangers in a strange land, drifted to the fences
and were cut to the quick by the biting blasts. Early in January the
worst blizzard in the history of the plains swept down from the north,
and the poor wandering cattle were driven to the divides and frozen
to death against the line fences. Of all the appalling sights that an
ordinary lifetime on the range affords, there is nothing to compare
with the suffering and death that were daily witnessed during the
month of January in the winter of 1885-86. I remained on the range,
and left men at winter camps on every pasture in which we had stock,
yet we were powerless to relieve the drifting cattle. The morning
after the great storm, with others, I rode to a south string of fence
on a divide, and found thousands of our cattle huddled against it,
many frozen to death, partially through and hanging on the wire. We
cut the fences in order to allow them to drift on to shelter, but the
legs of many of them were so badly frozen that, when they moved, the
skin cracked open and their hoofs dropped off. Hundreds of young
steers were wandering aimlessly around on hoofless stumps, while their
tails cracked and broke like icicles. In angles and nooks of the
fence, hundreds had perished against the wire, their bodies forming
a scaling ladder, permitting late arrivals to walk over the dead and
dying as they passed on with the fury of the storm. I had been a
soldier and seen sad sights, but nothing to compare to this; the
moaning of the cattle freezing to death would have melted a heart of
adamant. All we could do was to cut the fences and let them drift, for
to halt was to die; and when the storm abated one could have walked
for miles on the bodies of dead animals. No pen could describe the
harrowing details of that winter; and for years afterward, or until
their remains had a commercial value, a wayfarer could have traced
the south-line fences by the bleaching bones that lay in windrows,
glistening in the sun like snowdrifts, to remind us of the closing
chapter in the history of the Cheyenne and Arapahoe Cattle Company.


The subsequent history of the ill-fated Cheyenne and Arapahoe Cattle
Company is easily told. Over ninety per cent of the cattle moved under
the President's order were missing at the round-up the following
spring. What few survived were pitiful objects, minus ears and tails,
while their horns, both root and base, were frozen until they drooped
down in unnatural positions. Compared to the previous one, the winter
of 1885-86, with the exception of the great January blizzard, was the
less severe of the two. On the firm's range in the Cherokee Strip our
losses were much lighter than during the previous winter, owing to the
fact that food was plentiful, there being little if any sleet or
snow during the latter year. Had we been permitted to winter in the
Cheyenne and Arapahoe country, considering our sheltered range and
the cattle fully located, ten per cent would have been a conservative
estimate of loss by the elements. As manager of the company I lost
five valuable years and over a quarter-million dollars. Time has
mollified my grievances until now only the thorn of inhumanity to dumb
beasts remains. Contrasted with results, how much more humane it would
have been to have ordered out negro troops from Fort Reno and shot
the cattle down, or to have cut the fences ourselves, and, while our
holdings were drifting back to Texas, trusted to the mercy of the

I now understand perfectly why the business world dreads a political
change in administration. Whatever may have been the policy of one
political party, the reverse becomes the slogan of the other on
its promotion to power. For instance, a few years ago, the general
government offered a bounty on the home product of sugar, stimulating
the industry in Louisiana and also in my adopted State. A change of
administration followed, the bounty was removed, and had not the
insurance companies promptly canceled their risks on sugar mills, the
losses by fire would have been appalling. Politics had never affected
my occupation seriously; in fact I profited richly through the
extravagance and mismanagement of the Reconstruction regime in Texas,
and again met the defeat of my life at the hands of the general

US Presidunces 1857 – 1886:

13. President 1850-1853 Millard Fillmore Whig 1800-1874
(no vice president)
14. President 1853-1857 Franklin Pierce Democrat 1804-1869
Vice President 1853 William R. King 1786-1853
15. President 1857-1861 James Buchanan Democrat 1791-1868
Vice President 1857-1861 John C. Breckinridge 1821-1875
16. President 1861-1865 Abraham Lincoln Republican 1809-1865
Vice President 1861-1865 Hannibal Hamlin 1809-1891
Vice President 1865 Andrew Johnson Democrat (nominated vice pres. by Republicans) 1808-1875
17. President 1865-1869 Andrew Johnson Democrat 1808-1875
(no vice president)
18. President 1869-1877 Ulysses Simpson Grant Republican 1822-1885
Vice President 1869-1873 Schuyler Colfax 1823-1885
Vice President 1873-1875 Henry Wilson 1812-1875
19. President 1877-1881 Rutherford Birchard Hayes Republican 1822-1893
Vice President 1877-1881 William A. Wheeler 1819-1887
20. President 1881 James Abram Garfield Republican 1831-1881
Vice President 1881 Chester A. Arthur 1829?-1886
21. President 1881-1885 Chester Alan Arthur Republican 1829?-1886
(no vice president)
22. President 1885-1889 Grover Cleveland Democrat 1837-1908
Vice President 1885 Thomas A. Hendricks 1819-1885


Representative for York State 1885, who refused to shake the hand of Presidunce Bushinwaiting, saying, "Mr. President, I have my opinion of a man who admits he is wrong and refuses to right it." :

No results found for "Representative for York State 1885".
Results for Representative for York State 1885 (without quotes):



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