# 20 degrees of separation

The world is connected by heat that travels by cooling …

At the centre of the earth the solar heating is so great that the only way out for the air at the surface near the equator is to rise up above the tropical currents and be squeezed out over the tropics down to "higher latitudes".

These "higher latitudes" are about 20 to 30 degrees from the equator.

What happens is that between the tropics all the air eventually heats up expanding until it reaches the tropopause. It is ripped away from this height by the mechanics of the moisture in it. The celss of heated air cool. And fall.

Originally posted by OnlineConversion.com:

The nautical mile was based on the circumference of the earth at the equator.

The earth is 360 degrees around.
Degrees are broken into 60 "minutes"each.
There are 360 x 60 "minutes" of longitude around the earth.
= 21,600

This is the basis for the nautical mile.

1 minute of longitude at the equator is equal to 1 nautical mile.
The earth is, by definition, 21,600 nautical miles in circumference at the equator.

The earth is therefore 21,600 "minutes" of longitude in circumference at the equator.

It takes the air 12 to 18 hundred miles to cross the tropics and cool sufficiently to fall down the the surface again.

When it falls it reheats and pushes the air beneath it out of the way.

This displaced air becomes the trade winds. They move south, south west to be more exact. It just so happens that a ship hugging the coast of Africa can sail out to the middle of the ocean from just north of the tropics and pick up these winds and cross the ocean by means of them.

As you can imagine the equatorial current is upward shifting. But the tropical ones can move in a variety of different directions.

In fact interaction with the equatorial currents and the trade winds make sure they regularly unsettle. This interaction is the first appreciable weather.

Something similar happens over the horse latitudes. Some 30 degrees north and south, a similar lassitude allows moist water to rise to the tropopause once again and extend to the north and south jumping over the same sort of distances before falling to earth once again. These currents are far more seasonal.

And because they are less constant they are more erratic.

Actually they behave more according to the other factors that affect weather in a less intense way than solar radiation over the equator. They provide a less stable northern trade route.

Because the maths fits it has become a socially accepted mistake that the spin of the earth provides the rotation of storms.

This is obviously not what is happening when you come to realise that cyclones move not around the earth but around anticyclones.

In the tropics and immediately north of them, the cyclones move east to west. The same way that the trade winds in the region go.

But farther north in the region of the northern trade winds the cyclones move west to east.

What happens in a cyclone is that the main currents in them move up and down. This movement is intensified by the heights the columns reach and by the mechanics of the water they contain.

Huge amounts of heat is evolved and reabsorbed inside them and is the movement of these currents that drive the vortex. It is the same process that causes water to dain in a circular motion from a container.

And it is a process that is easily disturbed.
For all their power, a shearing wind aloft will quickly put an end to them.

## 6 thoughts on “20 degrees of separation”

1. Weatherlawyer says:

Clouds can provide heating for a very thin layer of sea surface at the top of the oceans. This heating actually increases at night as clouds drop nearer the surface.The process is called "below cloud radiation".It is my contention that it is this heating that gives us the "warm pools" the so called El Nino effect.Now all I have to do is find out how and why.I'm pretty sure it has a lot to do with the moon but I feel it also depends on further interference to the "three body problem".

2. Weatherlawyer says:

Once established, the cyclone has a great power enough to seem to drive itself. But it is the upper winds that gave it life and it is the upper winds that provide the shear that can destroy it.Winds at lower levels are not considered strong enough to provide shear. Actually it is the fact that conditions are ripe for a cyclone that has done away with the trades.And it is the fact these conditions don't arise in the South Atlantic that makes it next to impossible to form cyclonic storms there.When a cyclone is imminent, the sea tends to become very warm at the surface. This despite the fact there is a lot of cloud before a cyclone arises.There has to be a lot of cloud, even though it stops sunlight reaching the sea. It is the vapour that is all important for the genesis of storms. And it is the cloud that provides the required heating.And it is the clouds that can be disbursed by wind shear. Which obviously takes place at cloud level or just above.If sunlight reaches sea level the sea sweeps away the heat.Sunlight falls into the sea to depths as great as several hundred feet depending on the frequencies. The layers are caused by adsorption and refraction.The angle of incident too is important as a lot of sunlight is reflected away from the sea.

3. Weatherlawyer says:

Now go and read what the Encyclopaedia Britannica has to say on the subject of Atmospheric Science.It's them or me.Stay safe.

4. Weatherlawyer says:

One problem the concept of atmosphere circulation introduces is that upon which climatology is based. Statistics and averages.From the model presented above, it is easy to assume a particle caught up in a circulating system. And that particle having company takes up a model that is presented as a tube running the circumference of the globe at latitudes zero to 30 degrees.You can pick up insights to what I am talking about by searching on-line for images of stuff like Hadley and Ferrel cells.What is really happening is that at any particular time, hot air from anywhere between the equator and the subtropics is rising high enough for the troposphere to lose the surface layer to winds in the stratosphere.What may be happening instead of mass movement en-bloc as some would have us believe, is that as air masses rise their movement causes and acoustinc vibration.For all particles of the same size, moving at much the same speed, the harmonic will cause trends in the motion to take place. Tunnels might conceivably form like that.Correct me if I am wrong but putting a Pythagorean spin on it seems a logical step.And it also fits in nicely with what I have come to expect from my beliefs in the moon as a first cause in the behaviour of weather and seismicity.Of course I could be wrong. I have been before and will be again.But in this instance I doubt I am.For now.

5. Weatherlawyer says:

Here is a nice graphic showing what I mean:http://facweb.bhc.edu/academics/science/harwoodr/Geog101/study/globwind.htmThe problems introduced by trying to suggest a root cause for these things are not touched on in this page, so the model is simple and clean.You can not compact a gas in a free flowing environment and you cannot make any parts of it move in any direction en-mass. So the model depicted must be seen as an idealised version of what actually happens.

6. Weatherlawyer says:

Originally posted by Yokser:

Funny, I'd just posted about the inability of gas to cause strong fluid flows that atmospheric science insists is the case….I hadn't expected to find someone actually reading my stuff.OH, Man!Indonesia:http://my.opera.com/Yokser/about/Stay safe.I let you people down badly Xmas 2004.Sorry.Another thing, I promised I'd get an aswer to predicting Vietnamese typhoons when I first came here.That's another thing I need to get done.The trouble is, there is so much to do.Finding English language weather sites in that neck of the woods isn't easy.I really must pull my finger out.