Volcano Harmonics

Paart two of my musings. …


So what is there about volcanoes that has to be a constant for all of them?

Volcanoes are slightly different to earthquake epicentres. Earthquakes occur almost as frequently as everything else to do with geo-phenomena. But volcanoes stand out as flags. They have grown into shape.

For reasons yet to be discovered they fall asleep. Sometimes they wake to periods of constant eruption, sometimes (more usually) to sporadic events. But always, they have this “long period event” that MUST be related to the winds that drive them.

It stands to reason that given their need for long period events to arouse them, they must be on some sort of "ley-line" with something. As far as I am convinced and concerned that something has to be the weather.

It also seems a constant that weather affecting them must be easily investigated. And we know all the angles for that.

Even if we didn't we know the times for the eruptions and can back track to the weather all over the earth for those eruptions.

That is called reanalysis. And the archives for most of such stuff are already on the servers of some countries, most conspicuously the USA. Working with just their output gives us the weather at any time for most of half a century covering half a continent.

Canadian resources will at a price supply the same information covering the other half and so will the Met Office for the North Atlantic and north Western Europe.

That should be more than ample. In fact the sea Surface pressures are available for the North Atlantic covered by Met Office charts available from the servers of other countries.

Times of eruption of most volcanoes are archived online at the Smithsonian servers. I just don't happen to have the data to hand and am not online to get it at the moment. (Something to do with the BBC and me not seeing eye to eye about freedom of information and paying an head tax for something I don't want.)

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5 thoughts on “Volcano Harmonics

  1. Not once does any of it mention the weather, yet with most severe eruptions as with major earthquakes there is almost always a first hand account that states how bad the weather was at the time of the eruption.And inevitably when an earthquake razes a village, it is always the weather that hampers relief efforts. (That and the predeliction for people to kill each other.)*******Stuff I have yet to look up:HAARP and the IMS Global Infrasound Network. http://www.inframatics.org/pdf/inframatics_march2003.pdfIceberg tremors http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Iceberghttp://www.canadiangeographic.ca/magazine/MA06/indepth/science.asp "Singing icebergs"Transition depths and superctitical water

  2. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaJump to: navigation, search A supercritical fluid is any substance at a temperature and pressure above its critical point, where distinct liquid and gas phases do not exist. It can effuse through solids like a gas, and dissolve materials like a liquid. In addition, close to the critical point, small changes in pressure or temperature result in large changes in density, allowing many properties of a supercritical fluid to be "fine-tuned". Supercritical fluids are suitable as a substitute for organic solvents in a range of industrial and laboratory processes. Carbon dioxide and water are the most commonly used supercritical fluids, being used for decaffeination and power generation, respectively.

  3. Now look at this website:Grimsvotn volcano 2011 eruption Iceland volcano Icelandic volcano ash – Iceland Review.htmGrimsvotn volcano, Iceland. 2011 eruption.On 21 May 2011 at approximately 17:30 Universal Time (5:30 p.m. local time), an eruption began, with 12km high plumes accompanied by multiple earthquakes. The ash cloud from the eruption rose to 20km, and is so far 10 times larger than the 2004 eruption, and the strongest in Grimsvotn for 100 years. During 22 May the ash plume fell to around 10km altitude, rising occasionally to 15km. Grimsvotn volcano is the Iceland's most frequently active volcano in historical time. Grimsvotn 's volcano type is Caldera and Grimsvotn volcano (64.41°N, 17.33°W) situated near the center of the Vatnajokull ice cap in central Iceland. The Grimsvotn sub-glacial lakes are in the highlands of Iceland at the northwestern side of the Vatnajökull ice-cap and are covered by it. Beneath them is the magma chamber of the Grimsvotn volcano. The lakes are at an elevation of 1725m. Because most of the volcano lies underneath Vatnajökull, most of its eruptions have been subglacial.Grimsvotn has a southwest-northeast-trending fissure system. The massive climate-impacting Laki fissure eruption of 1783-1784 was a part of the same fissure system and produced the world's largest known historical lava flow during an eruption in 1783. The 15-cu-km basaltic Laki lavas were erupted over a 7-month period from a 27-km-long fissure system. Grimsvotn was erupting at the same time as Laki during 1783, but continued to erupt until 1785. 2. Vatnajokull ice-cap.Vatnajokull covers an area of 8100 km2. The volume of the ice cap is almost 3000 km3.The ice cover is about 400m thick (average), and at the most about 950 meters!Since 70 % of the surface is above 1100m, it is still alive. If it should disappear, it would not be able to build up again under the present climatic situation.Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA’s Terra satellite captured this natural-color image at 13:00 UTC (1:00 p.m. local time) on May 22, 2011. 3. Harmonic tremor.Harmonic tremors were recorded twice around Grimsvotn on 2 and 3 October 2010, possibly indicating an impending eruption. At the same time, sudden inflation was measured by GPS in the volcano, indicating magma movement under the mountain.On 1 November 2010 meltwater from the Vatnajokull glacier was flowing into the lake, suggesting that an eruption of the underlying volcano might be imminent.Harmonic tremor describes a long-duration release of seismic energy, with distinct spectral (harmonic) lines, that often precedes or accompanies a volcanic eruption. A volcanic tremor is a sustained signal that may or may not possess these harmonic spectral features.A Harmonic tremor is a sustained release of seismic and/or infrasonic energy typically associated with the underground movement of magma and/or or venting of volcanic gases from magma.Being a long-duration continuous signal from a temporally extended source, a volcanic tremor contrasts distinctly with transient sources of seismic radiation, such as tremors that are typically associated with earthquake and explosion.Bernard Chouet, a United States Geological Survey volcanologist, first observed a relation between long-period events and an imminent eruption.4. Seismic Imaging Iceland Mantle Plumes.The global high resolution tomographic P-wave model has some evidence for a slow region extending across the entire mantle beneath Iceland. The anomaly sweeps across the mantle (maybe the effect of "mantle wind") and measures up to 1000km in diameter.Other attempts at imaging plumes in the lower mantle using seismic waves that propagate steeply in the mantle (such as the core-reflected waves PcP and ScS or core-transmitted waves PKP and SKS), were not conclusive.A plume beneath Iceland in the tomographic P-velocity model (Bijwaard H, Spakman W. 1999. Tomographic evidence for a narrow whole mantle plume below Iceland. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 166:121–26).5. Iceland volcano magma. Inside view.For the first time in history scientists have descended 650 feet into the magma chamber of a volcano.These incredible images show one explorer gently lowering himself into the heart of the dormant Thrihnukagigur volcano in Iceland. Known as a 'sleeping volcano' because it could come back to life at any time, Thrihnukagigur is credited with helping to create the Atlantic island we call Iceland when it last erupted 3000 years ago.Only now – 50 years since the first man went into space – have human beings visited the only magma chamber on the planet currently safe to explore.University of Iceland volcano researcher, Dr Freysteinn Sigmundsson used the pioneering expedition to build on his work on Iceland’s most notorious volcano, Eyjafjallajokull – which caused global chaos when it erupted in March last year – grounding aeroplanes and leaving hundreds of thousands of people stranded.Doctor Sigmundsson described the feeling of being the first scientist to witness a magma chamber from the inside – which was tinged an eery red thanks to the rusted iron ore that lined the chamber walls.6. Bacteria in the subglacial lakes.In summer 2004, bacteria were detected in the water of the Grimsvotn lakes under the glacier. The first time that bacteria were found in a subglacial lake. The lakes do not freeze totally because of the volcanic heat.The bacteria can also survive at low concentrations of oxygen. The site is a possible analogue for life the planet Mars, because there are also traces of volcanism and glaciers on Mars and thus the findings could help identify how to look for life on Mars.Sources of information:1. Nataf H.-C., (2000) Seismic imaging of mantle plumes.Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. , 2000. v. 28, p. 391–417.2. Websites:- Global Volcanism Program. (n.d.) Grímsvötn. Accessed May 23, 2011. – http://www.nature.com/news/2004/040712/full/news040712-6.htmlhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/http://andfinally.tv/2011/05/volcano-magma-chamber-explored-for-first-time/ It has it all, does it not.?I particularly like the way the dates and related data are set up. Why can't TV programmes do the same?One small quibble the article about bacteria might have mentioned thermophilic stuff. That would have been icing on top of the ice.However I feel about my ideas seeming confirmed it is really nice to see that a man can engineer a complete branch of scientific research overnight. This has occurred with the work of Bernard Choett and with the work of Thomas Gold, whose theoretical exploits in his old age have come true some 2 or three decades late.However there is always something to show us the devil has his claws in things that don't belong. For instance; what is this doing in the mix?"It has been proposed that before the North American plate overrode the mid-ocean ridge, there was a single biogeographic vent region found in the eastern Pacific.[14] The subsequent barrier to travel began the evolutionary divergence of species in different locations. The examples of convergent evolution seen between distinct hydrothermal vents is seen as major support for the theory of natural selection and of evolution as a whole."See below:

  4. There is an huge amount of information on vents in the Wikipedia. Here is some of it:Hydrothermal Vent from Wikipedia.A hydrothermal vent is a fissure in a planet's surface from which geothermally heated water issues. Hydrothermal vents are commonly found near volcanically active places, areas where tectonic plates are moving apart, ocean basins, and hotspots.Hydrothermal vents exist because the earth is both geologically active and has large amounts of water on its surface and within its crust. Common land types include hot springs, fumaroles and geysers.The most famous hydrothermal vent system on land is probably within Yellowstone National Park in the United States. Under the sea, hydrothermal vents may form features called black smokers. Relative to the majority of the deep sea, the areas around submarine hydrothermal vents are biologically more productive, often hosting complex communities fueled by the chemicals dissolved in the vent fluids.Chemosynthetic archaea form the base of the food chain, supporting diverse organisms, including giant tube worms, clams, limpets and shrimp. Active hydrothermal vents are believed to exist on Jupiter's moon Europa, and ancient hydrothermal vents have been speculated to exist on Mars. In this phase diagram, the green dotted line illustrates the anomalous behavior of water. The solid green line marks the melting point and the blue line the boiling point, showing how they vary with pressure.Hydrothermal vents in the deep ocean typically form along the Mid-ocean ridges, such as the East Pacific Rise and the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. These are locations where two tectonic plates are diverging and new crust is being formed.The water that issues from seafloor hydrothermal vents consists mostly of sea water drawn into the hydrothermal system close to the volcanic edifice through faults and porous sediments or volcanic strata, plus some magmatic water released by the upwelling magma.In terrestrial hydrothermal systems the majority of water circulated within the fumarole and geyser systems is meteoric water plus ground water that has percolated down into the thermal system from the surface, but it also commonly contains some portion of metamorphic water, magmatic water, and sedimentary formational brine that is released by the magma. The proportion of each varies from location to location.In contrast to the approximately 2 °C ambient water temperature at these depths, water emerges from these vents at temperatures ranging from 60 °C up to as high as 464 °C.[2][3] Due to the high hydrostatic pressure at these depths, water may exist in either its liquid form or as a supercritical fluid at such temperatures.At a pressure of 218 atmospheres, the critical point of water is 375 °C. At a depth of 3,000 meters, the hydrostatic pressure of sea water is more than 300 atmospheres (as salt water is denser than fresh water).At this depth and pressure, seawater becomes supercritical at a temperature of 407 °C (see image). However the increase in salinity at this depth pushes the water closer to its critical point.Thus, water emerging from the hottest parts of some hydrothermal vents can be a supercritical fluid, possessing physical properties between those of a gas and those of a liquid.[2][3] Besides being superheated, the water is also extremely acidic, often having a pH value as low as 2.8 — approximately that of vinegar.Sister Peak (Comfortless Cove Hydrothermal Field, 4°48′S 12°22′W / 4.8°S 12.367°W / -4.8; -12.367, elevation -2996 m), Shrimp Farm and Mephisto (Red Lion Hydrothermal Field, 4°48′S 12°23′W / 4.8°S 12.383°W / -4.8; -12.383, elevation -3047 m), are three hydrothermal vents of the black smoker category, located on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge near Ascension Island.They are presumed to have been active since an earthquake shook the region in 2002.[2][3] These vents have been observed to vent phase-separated, vapor-type fluids.In 2008, sustained exit temperatures of up to 407 °C were recorded at one of these vents, with a peak recorded temperature of up to 464 °C. These thermodynamic conditions exceed the critical point of seawater, and are the highest temperatures recorded to date from the seafloor.This is the first reported evidence for direct magmatic-hydrothermal interaction on a slow-spreading mid-ocean ridge.The initial stages of a vent chimney begin with the deposition of the mineral anhydrite. Sulfides of copper, iron and zinc then precipitate in the chimney gaps, making it less porous over the course of time.Vent growths on the order of 30 cm per day have been recorded. An April 2007 exploration of the deep-sea vents off the coast of Fiji found those vents to be a significant source of dissolved iron.<Snipped.>http://www.google.co.uk/url?sa=t&source=web&cd=1&ved=0CDAQFjAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fen.wikipedia.org%2Fwiki%2FHydrothermal_vent&ei=L2b7Tc2TIcmLhQf-hdWzAw&usg=AFQjCNFraVudICWzYXDt6-lOdCen1h__fQHere is another link:http://www.google.co.uk/url?sa=t&source=web&cd=1&ved=0CB0QFjAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fen.wikipedia.org%2Fwiki%2FPrediction_of_volcanic_activity&ei=8Wb7TebLE8eAhQfNh8H_Ag&usg=AFQjCNFzsN_SVQZAedqyIFD1Jq5BiyAPZwJust as good but too long for complete ensnafflement.Lots of PDFs on Volcano harmonics too. Not bad for a relatively new science.

  5. Harmonic tremor from WikipediaHarmonic tremor describes a long-duration release of seismic energy, with distinct harmonic lines, that often precedes or accompanies a volcanic eruption.Being a long-duration continuous signal from a temporally extended source, a volcanic tremor contrasts distinctly with transient sources of seismic radiation, such as tremors that are typically associated with earthquake and explosion.See:Bernard Chouet (28 March 1996) "Long-period volcano seismicity: its sources and use in eruption forecasting," Nature, vol. 380, no. 6572, pages 309-316. Interview with Bernard Chouet regarding his research into long-period events and volcanic eruptions: http://www.esi-topics.com/volcanoes/interviews/BernardChouet.html . U.S. TV program on use of long-period events to predict volcanic eruptions: "Nova: Volcano's Deadly Warning": http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/volcano/See also "Volcano Hell" episode of BBC TV series "Horizon" on same subject: http://www.bbc.co.uk/science/horizon/2001/volcanohell.shtml*******For a while now I have been banging on about "harmonics" not realising it was a scientific term used in modern vulcanology. I had loosely applied it to my idea about the relationship with earthquakes and weather.Now I think I can tie it all together. With the help of god that is. (Perhaps I aught to get another computer ready to deal with the problems The Resister will pile up on my head as a distraction.)

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