The Centipede

All data is from the Wikipedia and the Met Office's North Atlantic surface pressure charts.

I would have been better to get the high VEI numbers searched rather than specifying volcanoes. But we all have to start somewhere. …

The 2010 eruptions of Eyjafjallajökull were volcanic events at Eyjafjöll in Iceland which, although relatively small for volcanic eruptions, caused enormous disruption to air travel across western and northern Europe over an initial period of six days in April 2010. Additional localised disruption continued into May 2010. The eruption was declared officially over in October 2010, when snow on the glacier did not melt. From 14–20 April, ash covered large areas of northern Europe when the volcano erupted. About 20 countries closed their airspace (a condition known as ATC Zero) and it affected hundreds of thousands of travellers. The grounding of European flights avoided about 344×106 kg of CO2 emissions per day, while the volcano emitted about 150×106 kg of CO2 per day.

Seismic activity started at the end of 2009 and gradually increased in intensity until on 20 March 2010, a small eruption started rated as a 1 on the Volcanic Explosivity Index.

Beginning on 14 April 2010, the eruption entered a second phase and created an ash cloud that led to the closure of most of Europe's IFR airspace from 15 until 20 April 2010. Consequently, a very high proportion of flights within, to, and from Europe were cancelled, creating the highest level of air travel disruption since the Second World War.

The second phase of the eruption started on 14 April 2010 and resulted in an estimated 250 million cubic metres (330,000,000 cu yd) (¼ km3) of ejected tephra. The ash plume rose to a height of approximately 9 kilometres (30,000 ft), which rates the explosive power of the eruption as a 4 on the Volcanic Explosivity Index.

By 21 May 2010, the second eruption phase had subsided to the point that no further lava or ash was being produced. More seismic activity was produced.

By the morning of 24 May 2010, the view from the web camera installed on Þórólfsfell showed only a plume of water vapour surrounded by a blueish haze caused by the emission of sulphurous gases.

Due to the large quantities of dry volcanic ash lying on the ground, surface winds frequently lifted up an "ash mist" that significantly reduced visibility and made web camera observation of the volcano impossible.

By the evening of 6 June 2010, a small, new crater had opened up on the west side of the main crater from which explosive activity was observed with the emission of small quantities of ash. Seismic data showed that the frequency and intensity of earth tremors still exceeded the levels observed before the eruption, therefore scientists at the Icelandic Meteorological Office (IMO) and the Institute of Earth Sciences, University of Iceland (IES) continued to monitor the volcano.

In October 2010, Ármann Höskuldsson, a scientist at the University of Iceland Institute of Earth Sciences stated that the eruption is officially over, although the area is still geothermally active and might erupt again.

In May 2011, a nearby volcano named Grímsvötn started erupting, causing air travel disruption mostly in Iceland.ökull


The 2011 eruption of Grímsvötn is an eruption in Grímsvötn, Iceland's most active volcano, which caused disruption to air travel in North-Western Europe from 22–25 May 2011. The last eruption of Grímsvötn was in 2004, with the previous most powerful eruptions in 1783, 1873 and 1902. The Grímsvötn eruption is the largest eruption in Iceland for 50 years.

The eruption is estimated to have started under the glacier at around 17:30 UTC on 21 May 2011 when an intense spike in tremor activity was detected. At around 19:00 UTC, the eruption broke the ice cover of the glacier and started spewing volcanic ash into the air. The eruption plume quickly rose to 65,000 feet (20 km). A series of small earthquakes had commenced at the time of eruption. Glacial flooding was anticipated, which normally occurs within 10–12 hours after eruption,[8] but never occurred as a flood had occurred the previous autumn, meaning a smaller chance of another flood appearing.

On 25 May, the Iceland Met Office (IMO) confirmed the eruption had paused at 02:40 UTC. Later the BBC reported that the volcanic activity appeared to have stopped. At 15:00 the IMO issued an update stating that no further ash plume is expected. However there are still pulsating explosions producing ash and steam clouds, some reaching a few kilometers in height, rising up from the vents. Also there is still widespread ash in cloud layers up to 5 km from the eruption site.

On 26 May the Icelandic Meteorological Office and the University of Iceland reported that ashfall is only occurring adjacent to the eruption site. Visual observations indicate that little ice meltwater was produced during the eruption, so that an outburst flood (jökulhlaup) is not expected. Joint status reports will no longer be issued, unless something notable is observed.

The eruption ceased at 7am on 28 May 2011.ímsvötn


So what we have is:

2009: activity started.

20 March 2010, Volcanic Explosivity Index 1.

14–20 April 2010 relatively small eruptions of Eyjafjallajökull.

Lunar phase:
14 to 21 Apr 12:29. 14 to 20 April ash cloud & Volcanic Explosivity Index 4.

21 May 2010, no further lava or ash, more seismic activity.

24 May 2010, water plume of vapour surrounded by a blueish haze caused by the emission of sulphurous gases.

6 June 2010, new crater.

In October 2010, officially over.


Eruptions of Grímsvötn:
2011, 2004, 1902, 1873 and 1783.

21 May 2011. Plume to 65,000 feet.

On 25 May, the eruption had paused at 02:40 UTC.

28 May 2011, eruption ceased.

That's all for now I will edit it later to include some North Atlantic charts.
I am pretty disappointed with the animation.

I have some 40 odd charts on there though so I may have hamstrung the tool creating it. Maybe if I just took one chart from each day. Or posted the most germane of them?

The charts DO show a centipede though. Huge ones. All the way up to Greenland along the Mid Atlantic Ridge. And what's more the feelers are facing west.

Now maybe, I can get some sleep?


44 thoughts on “The Centipede

  1. I found some old folders of the North Atlantic on my USB sticks. (It's nice when you don't lose everything when your computers fold up, isn't it?)I tried putting a whole month of them on an animation (well it works in file viewer!) It gave Gimp the toothache in both ears.It told me it needed to crop them. Not knowing what that meant, I followed suit.Anyway, I'll try it again later with just 30 images, see if it can swallow that many.Meantime I played January, February and March 2010 all the way through a couple of times each. One thing that struck me was the number of Blocking Highs in the season.I can't say there were all that many westward facing cold/occluded fronts or whatever those boat anchor events are called.There were one or two. And April awaits.I hate organising things like this. It was a long boring job sitting down to collect them in the first place. I wish I had known in advance what I needed to do with them.I could have just done it straight to that format.Now I have got to psyche myself up all over again.What I need is a couple of five year olds to show me how computers work. See what easy divorces accomplish?No grandchildren, that what.Isn't democracy wonderful.

  2. A few days ago, someone on posted that the weather was a record for something somewhere since 1888. Another person replied the charts were similar then too. (I don't think they would be anything like what we whould expect these days. Though the data was good by then and could be reworked to make a modern chart.)Anyway I looked up any earthquakes for that month. There weren't even any on record for that year.I just looked up volcanic eruptions in 1888:Mount Bandai (磐梯山 Bandai-san?), also known as Aizu-Bandai-san (会津磐梯山?), Aizu-Fuji (会津富士?), and Aizu-ne (会津嶺?), is a strato-volcano in Fukushima Prefecture, Japan.Not that I am forecasting anything like that for the not too distant future. Far from it. I just thought it was interesting enough to blog about.

  3. Originally posted by Weatherlawyer:

    it was interesting enough to blog about

    That whole decade was one of interest for earth science with epic floods and the most famous volcanic eruptions.I will have to blog about it.Such a shame the MetOffice hides all its data offline. I bet it would make succulent fare for anyone cutting their teeth on modern geophysics.

  4. This only goes out to Monday -with another system coming in the same direction of the one leaving:As far as it goes I'd say there is something going on along the Danube. Massive floods?More misery in Russia?Things don't look like changing much on here right through to the end of the spell:The spell ends on Thursday but all through it there seems to be a stand off with a large col off the coast of Antarctica south of Australia.This ends Thursday. That's all I have to say about that.

  5. Fortunately for me all my millions of fans were just waiting for me to push the envelope a little further.Rather than wait for me to do that, why didn't they drop on it for themselves?Obviously they are more courteous than I am.I'd have just run in there where angels fear to tread.Either that or the minions are stupid.Well I never said I was courteous.Would I rather have millions of stupid followers or just the one or two lazy ones?Who are you?

  6. A couple of things have occurred to me about this week. The first thing is the number of Fijian region quakes. Obviously the region can have quakes of its own independent of the results of other places having quakes.The only thing to work on with that is to watch how they or the situation develops.The other thing is the compression of isobars on the coast of Antarctica.I was so taken with the structure of the cyclones there and their behaviour against the backdrop of earth's behaviour at the same time, that I had ignored the just as interesting behaviour of the cyclones against the Anticyclones.This latter occurrence is fairly easily solved. All the other quakes I haven't studied whilst waiting for the big ones to arrive as the black isobars onshore.These latter shore-borne isobars often turn out to be storms not large quakes. And they are very distracting.The buggers!I'd entirely missed the little pictures. All I had to do was map out where the bulk of the compressed isobars occur. They HAVE to be in a very few places (besides the continent itself) and those places are the interfaces of the anticyclones.Since the anticyclones usually occur in the same place year in year out, it should explain the behaviour of earthquake lists.Now I have to re write everything I have ever written about earthquake series and sequences.Blast and damn it all!But that's good isn't it?I mean I've learned something… remembered something and realised it all over again or whatever.Something useful.

  7. Me?? The lazy donkey-jiraffe of course. Courtesy is a nice thing, isn't it? PS.Sorry, I'm airheaded lately. Not able to make head or tail of your work.. Next week I'll be in vacation so I'll help you if you want..

  8. Originally posted by tdjmd1:

    Next week I'll be in vacation so I'll help you if you want

    Gracias.That was a monologue by the way. A sort of stage whisper.I am well aware that I don't have any followers.I can't even keep up with myself some… most of the time.OK. A rehash.I came a cross a legend about a volcanic eruption in Japan a long time ago. I recall the hero fought it as a centipede.The villagers in some place in Iceland did about the same thing for real in the 1960's. So it is possible the story had a basis in fact.I don't know what the signal is on the North Atlantic chart for volcanoes. But the rarity and clarity of that image I saw on the chart a few days ago reminded me of the legend.Some months back I was looking at the shape of weather fronts trying to remember what it was about them I had forgotten.The ones that look like boat anchors were quite striking.I though it meant volcanic activity. (There is always a volcano doing something somewhere.)It turned out to be tornadoes. (Quite a severe spell IIRC) I was interested in volcanoes at the time for some reason so …I don't know.I wasn't paying attention.All these fronts mean more than what they are supposed to mean because they portray the state of the earth at a particular time, not just a region of different air temperatures.Usually when one runs into another they meet at a cross point. And they form an arrow shape or a hammer shape.Usually they appear to be pointing east or north east.Sometimes they point west or north west.It was the ones pointing north west I was looking at for this thread. And they seem to be made up of a long cold front.Cold fronts are curves or lines drawn with little triangles on them.I was picturing them as cartoons of centipedes.Silly I suppose but a lot easier to explain than the standard terminology.There is no particular reason to suppose that the direction two different air masses meet shows that there is going to be a so and so geo-phenomenon because of it.But the rarer an occasion is the more likely it is going to coincide with something unusual… IF IT DOES.We tend to think that massive eruptions of volcanoes like Krakatau are once in several lifetimes occurrences.But they are not.Obviously once Krakatau blew it's stack it was going to take forever to build up another head of steam.But 2 years later another volcano blew up. And two years later another one.They are not that rare.But when they do go there is something in the weather that should be putting people on the alert.The 1880's was such a period. And this year's weather is of that pattern.Unfortunately I have no charts to go on from then. And bear in mind what was known and what was written in those days was very different to what we are used to these days.

  9. Originally posted by Weatherlawyer:

    They are not that rare. posted by Wikipedia:

    Krakatoa. 1883. 36,417 deaths. Heard 3,000 miles away. Caused a 5 year volcanic winter.

    Absolute nonsense of course.Earth's axial tilt causes winter.Nobody human knows what causes the cycles.It has a lot to do with the rest of the solar system obviously. But exactly what, god knows.

  10. Cycles don't need a cause if not someone puts them in their ways… Genesis 1:14 and 8:22; just the earth is quite ill now and too many people, wicked. When that day comes, Earth will recover itself and cycles will come to be as beneficent as the beginning and so, according to His will.

  11. Originally posted by tdjmd1:

    Cycles don't need a cause unless someone puts them in their ways… Genesis 1:14 (And God said, "Let there be lights in the expanse of the sky to separate the day from the night, and let them serve as signs to mark seasons and days and years)And 8:22 ("As long as the earth endures, seed-time and harvest, cold and heat, summer and winter, day and night will never cease.") But the earth is quite ill now and too many people are wicked. When that day comes, Earth will recover itself and cycles will come to be as beneficent as the beginning and so, according to His will.

    You mean men start wars in cycles?Or something like this: thought that after Armageddon things were going to be a struggle?For goats like me at least?Something grotesque in the last chart in the run from today (15th July 2012.) A bit like this:This isn't very good is it?Too many charts?Or am I missing a step?

  12. Originally posted by WL:

    They are not that rare

    You were talking about volcanic activity and saying 'Nobody human knows what causes the cycles'. I might talk about Someone pushing men in a certain activity during a certain 'period' (Daniel 2:36-43 or Revelation 17:9-11). But that was not the point now. You were talking about a process produced by nature, rather than by the 'intent' of human beings –that is, volcanic activity. And speaking of Armageddon, as I said you before, take any one of these conditions –if goat or sheep– is related to your free will only. The selection is at your hand –or mind or heart. It's simply yours and you must do it now –before Armageddon. Before the Great Tribulation even. Or… Or, what do you think 2 Peter 3:9 or 2 Corinthians 6:2 mean, huh?

  13. Originally posted by tdjmd1:

    I might talk about Someone pushing men in a certain activity during a certain 'period' (Daniel 2:36-43 or Revelation 17:9-11)

    I wish you wouldn't quote numbers at me like that as if your understanding of scriptures conveys anything to me.What are you talking about?

  14. Volcanic Eruptions of the 19th CenturyOriginally posted by Wikipedia:

    VEI Volcano (eruption) Year Casualties Notes4 Pago 1800 5 Mount St. Helens 1800 6 Unknown source 1809 Greenland and Antarctic ice samples suggest an undocumented eruption roughly half the magnitude of Mount Tambora occurred, contributing to the 1810's being the coldest decade in at least 500 years.[1]4 La Soufrière 1812 4 Awu 1812 4 Suwanosejima 1813 4 Mount Mayon 1814 7 Mount Tambora (1815 eruption) 1815 >71,000 Largest and deadliest volcanic eruption in recorded history. Caused the "Year Without a Summer" in 1816.4 Raung 1817 4 Colima 1818 4 Mount Usu 1822 5 Galunggung 1822 4,000 4 Isanotski 1825 4 Kelut 1826 4 Avachinsky 1827 4 Kliuchevskoi 1829 4 Babuyan Claro 1831 5 Cosiguina 1835 4 Hekla 1845 4 Fonualei 1846 4 Mount Usu 1853 5 Shiveluch 1854 4 Komaga-Take 1856 4 Volcan De Fuego 1857 4 Katla 1860 4 Makian 1861 4 Sinarka 1872 4 Mount Merapi 1872 4 Grímsvötn 1873 5 Askja 1875 4 Suwanosejima 1877 4 Cotopaxi 1877 4 Volcan De Fuego 1880 6 Krakatoa 1883 36,417 Heard 3,000 miles (4,800km) away. Caused a 5 year volcanic winter.4 Mount Augustine 1883 4 Tungurahua 1886 5 Mount Tarawera 1886 108+ Largest historical eruption in New Zealand.4 Niuafo'ou 1886 4 Mount Bandai 1888 477+ 4 Suwanosejima 1889 4 Colima 1890 4 Calbuco 1893 4 Mount Mayon 1897 4 Dona Juana 1899

  15. Epedemics from the 19th and 20th CenturiesOriginally posted by Wikipedia:

    Years Region Species1800–1803 Spain yellow fever 1801 Ottoman Empire, Egypt bubonic plague 1803 United States yellow fever 1812 Egypt plague 1812 Ottoman Empire plague 1813 Malta plague 1813 Romania plague 1816–1819 Ireland typhus 1820–1823 United States fever1821 Spain yellow fever 1828 New South Wales smallpox 1829 Netherlands malaria 1829 South Australia smallpox 1829–1835 Iran bubonic plague 1831 Egypt cholera 1831–1834 Plains Indians smallpox 1832 England, France cholera 1832 North America cholera 1833 United States cholera 1834 United States cholera 1834–1836 Egypt bubonic plague 1837 United States typhus 1837–1838 Great Plains smallpox 1840 Dalmatia plague 1840 South Africa smallpox 1841 United States yellow fever 1847 United States yellow fever 1847–1848 worldwide influenza 1848 Egypt cholera 1848–1849 North America cholera 1850 United States yellow fever 1850–1851 North America influenza 1851 United States cholera 1852 United States yellow fever 1853 Ottoman Empire plague 1855 United States yellow fever 1855–1950 worldwide bubonic plague 1857 Portugal yellow fever 1857 Victoria, Australia smallpox 1857–1859 Europe, North America, South America influenza 1863–1879 Middle East cholera 1865 Egypt cholera 1866–1867 Russia, Germany cholera 1867 Australia measles 1867 Iraq plague 1852–1871 Argentina yellow fever 1870–1871 Germany smallpox 1877 Russian Empire plague 1881 Egypt cholera 1896–1906 Congo Basin trypanosomiasis 1900 West Africa yellow fever 1900–1920 Uganda trypanosomiasis 1902 Egypt cholera 1903 India plague 1910–1912 China bubonic plague 1918–1922 Russia typhus 1942–1944 Egypt malaria 1946 China bubonic plague 1946 Egypt relapsing fever 1947 Egypt cholera 1961–present worldwide cholera 1972 Yugoslavia smallpox 1990s South America cholera 1996 West Africa meningitis 2000 Central America dengue fever 2001 Nigeria cholera 2001 South Africa cholera 2003 Algeria plague 2004 Afghanistan leishmaniasis 2004 Bangladesh cholera 2004 Indonesia dengue fever 2004 Senegal cholera 2004 Sudan ebola 2005 Mali yellow fever 2006 Angola cholera 2006 Congo plague 2006 India malaria 2006 India Chikungunya virus 2006 Philippines dengue fever 2007 Congo ebola 2007 Ethiopia cholera 2007 Nigeria polio 2007 Puerto Rico, Dominican Republic, Mexico dengue fever 2007 Somalia cholera 2007 Uganda ebola 2007 Vietnam cholera 2008 Brazil dengue fever 2008 Cambodia dengue fever 2008 Chad cholera 2008 China hand, foot and mouth disease 2008 Madagascar bubonic plague 2008 Philippines dengue fever 2008 Vietnam cholera 2009 India hepatitis B 2009 Queensland, Australia dengue fever 2009 worldwide mumps 2011–present Congo measles 1889–1890 worldwide influenza 1852–1860 Russia cholera 1968–1969 worldwide influenza 1500–1900 The Americas smallpox, measles, typhoid, etc. 2007 Iraq cholera 1338–1351 Europe, Asia bubonic plague 20] 1665–1666 1900–1904 San Francisco bubonic plague 2009–2010 worldwide influenza 1974 India smallpox 2009 Bolivia dengue fever 2005 Singapore dengue fever 1957–1958 worldwide influenza 1847–1848 Canada epidemic typhus 639 Palestine bubonic plague 541–542 Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Empire bubonic plague 1981–present worldwide HIV/AIDS 1885 Montreal smallpox 2011–present Pakistan dengue fever 2008–2009 Zimbabwe cholera 1668 France plague 2007 India cholera 165–180 Roman Empire smallpox 2006 Pakistan dengue fever 2006 India dengue fever 1994 India plague 2010–present Hispaniola cholera

  16. Volcanic Eruptions of the 19th CenturyOriginally posted by Wikipedia:

    VEI Volcano (eruption) Year Casualties Notes4? La Soufrière[1] 1902 1,680 4 Mount Pelée[2] 1902 33,000 Deadliest eruption of the 20th century.6? Santa María[3] 1902 6,000 4 Grímsvötn[4] 1903 P Mount Lolobau[5] 1904 5 Ksudach[6] 1907 4 Mount Lolobau[7] 1911 6 Novarupta[8] 1912 Largest eruption of the 20th century.5 Colima[9] 1913 4 Sakurajima[10] 1914 4 Tungurahua[11] 1916 4 Agrihan[12] 1917 4+ Katla[13] 1918 4 Kelud[14] 1919 5000 4 Manam[15] 1919 4 Raikoke[16] 1924 4? Iriomotejima[17] 1924 Underwater volcano.4 Avachinsky[18] 1926 4 Komagatake[19] 1929 4 Kliuchevskoi[20] 1931 4 Mount Aniakchak[21] 1931 4 Volcan De Fuego[22] 1932 5+ Cerro Azul[23] 1932 5 Kharimkotan[24] 1933 4 Suoh[25] 1933 4? Kuchinoerabujima[26] 1933 4? Rabaul[27] 1937 4 Parícutin[28] 1943–1952 4 Avachinsky[29] 1945 4 Sarychev Peak[30] 1946 4 Hekla[31] 1947 4+ Ambrym[32] 1950 4 Mount Lamington[33] 1951 2,942 4 Kelud[34] 1951 4 Bagana[35] 1952 4 Mount Spurr[36] 1953 4 Carran-Los Venados[37] 1955 5 Bezymianny[38] 1955-1957 5 Mount Agung[39] 1963 1,584 4+ Shiveluch[40] 1964 4 Taal[41] 1965 4 Kelud[42] 1966 4 Mount Awu[43] 1966 4 Fernandina[44] 1968 4 Tiatia[45] 1973 4 Volcan De Fuego[46] 1974 4 Tolbachik[47] 1975 4 Mount Augustine[48] 1976 5 Mount St. Helens[49] 1980 57 Most deadly and economically destructive volcanic eruption in the history of the United States.4 Alaid[50] 1981 4 Pagan[51] 1981 5 El Chichón[52] 1982 3,500 Ejected 7 million metric tons of sulfur dioxide into the stratosphere.[53]4 Galunggung[54] 1982 Notable for bringing attention to the dangers of volcanic ash on aircraft after two Boeing 747 jets suffered engine failure from its ash cloud.4 Colo[55] 1983 3 Nevado del Ruiz 1985 23,000 Armero tragedy4 Mount Augustine[56] 1986 4 Chikurachki[57] 1986 4 Kliuchevskoi[58] 1987 3 Mount Redoubt 1989-1990 Second costliest volcanic eruption in United States history. Caused engine failure of all four engines on KLM Flight 867 after it flew through the ash cloud.4 Kelud[59] 1990 6 Mount Pinatubo[60] 1991 847 Largest stratospheric disturbance since Krakatoa eruption in 1883, dropping global temperatures and increasing ozone depletion.5+ Mount Hudson[61] 1991 4 Mount Spurr[62] 1992 4 Lascar[63] 1993 4? Rabaul[64] 1994

  17. This has to be a volcano. Mind you, there have been some tornadoes all over the place lately.Got it wrong again?So what else is new.

  18. Volcanic Eruptions of the 19th to 21th Century




    4? La Soufrière [1] 1902 1,680

    4 Mount Pelée [2] 1902 33,000 Deadliest eruption of the 20th century.

    Santa María [3] 1902 6,000


    Grímsvötn [4] 1903


    Mount Lolobau [5] 1904

    5 Ksudach [6] 1907

    4 Mount Lolobau [7] 1911

    6 Novarupta [8] 1912 Largest eruption of the 20th century.

    5 Colima [9] 1913

    4 Sakurajima [10] 1914

    4 Tungurahua [11] 1916
    Agrihan [12] 1917

    Katla [13] 1918

    4 Kelud [14] 1919 5,000

    4 Manam [15] 1919

    4 Raikoke [16] 1924

    4? Iriomotejima [17] 1924 Underwater volcano.

    4 Avachinsky [18] 1926

    4 Komagatake [19] 1929

    4 Kliuchevskoi [20] 1931

    4 Mount Aniakchak [21] 1931

    4 Volcan De Fuego [22] 1932


    5+ Cerro Azul [23] 1932

    5 Kharimkotan [24] 1933

    4 Suoh [25] 1933

    4? Kuchinoerabujima [26] 1933

    4? Rabaul [27] 1937

    4 Parícutin [28] 19431952

    4 Avachinsky [29] 1945

    4 Sarychev Peak [30] 1946

    4 Hekla [31] 1947

    4+ Ambrym [32] 1950

    4 Mount Lamington [33] 1951
    4 Bagana [35] 1952

    4 Mount Spurr [36] 1953

    4 Carran-Los Venados [37] 1955

    4 Bezymianny [38] 19551957

    5 Mount Agung [39] 1963 1,584

    4+ Shiveluch [40] 1964

    4 Taal [41] 1965

    4 Kelud [42] 1966

    4 Mount Awu [43] 1966

    4 Fernandina [44] 1968

    4 Tiatia [45] 1973

    4 Volcán De Fuego [46] 1974

    4 Tolbachik [47] 1975

    4 Mount Augustine [48] 1976

    5 Mount St. Helens[49] 1980 57 Most deadly and economically destructive volcanic eruption in the history of the United States.

    4 Alaid [50] 1981

    4 Pagan [51] 1981

    5 El Chichón [52] 1982 3,500 Ejected 7 million metric tons of sulfur dioxide into the stratosphere.[53]

    4 Galunggung [54] 1982 168.288 Notable for bringing attention to the dangers of volcanic ash on aircraft after two Boeing 747 jets suffered engine failure from its ash cloud.

    4 Colo [55] 1983

    3 Nevado del Ruiz 1985 23,000 Armero tragedy

    4 Mount Augustine [56] 1986

    4 Chikurachki [57] 1986

    4 Kliuchevskoi [58] 1987

    3 Mount Redoubt 1989-1990
    Second costliest volcanic eruption in United States history. Caused engine failure of all four engines on KLM Flight 867 after it flew through the ash cloud.

    4 Kelud [59] 1990

    6 Mount Pinatubo [60] 1991 847 Largest stratospheric disturbance since Krakatoa eruption in 1883, dropping global temperatures and increasing ozone depletion.

    5+ Mount Hudson [61] 1991

    4 Mount Spurr [62] 1992

    4 Lascar [63] 1993

    4? Rabaul [64] 1994

    ////// ///////////////////////////////////////////// //////////////// ///////////// From: ♦

  19. I'm not sure enough about the title.. (Is it right so or that "Century" must go in plural. I'm confused a little)Later, that next one –'Epedemics from the 19th and 20th Centuries'.

  20. Originally posted by tdjmd1:

    (Is that right, or should "Century" be plural. I'm confused a little)

    Yes even to a Brit you have to think.What moderates it are the words to and of for and between.Between the 19th and 22nd Centuries.Oh, hang on. Your syntax is out."of the 19th to 21th Century"would be of the 19th, 20th and 21st centuriesorfrom the 19th to 21st century.It could be written: from the 19th century to the 21st century -you leave the first on unspoken.But anyway thank you so much. I'll delete mine after you finish. So many choices and not all of them correct.

  21. Okay I agree –I was just using my Spanish wording. I don't think much in that saying 'When in doubt, remain silent'. Simply I don't care. In any case, correcting that horror/error and working in the next table.

  22. Originally posted by tdjmd1:

    Oddly, you are so nice, now and then.

    Not too often though. It attracts flies.

  23. Originally posted by tdjmd1:

    working in the next table.

    It looks like hard work.I hope the code is useful for anyone who wants to take it onto another web page board. It would be a shame if it was only fit for Opera pages.I am going to try and analyse the disease data to see if there is any correlation with eruptions. I expect a time lag.Also the way that influenza attacks young, strong people indicates that the first bout of a virus is generally a weaker strain that gets mutated in the atmosphere, possibly where there are dirty events displeasing to the planet?All over the planet there are unhealthy eyesores. Well maybe our selfishness and greed is causing our plagues?In the accounts of the pandemic that followed WW 1, nobody mentions that before it struck, the whole of the east of France was dancing with rats and flies feeding on people that were blown to bits and left unburied for half a decade.There has to be something biblical about that.Anyway the fittest people in a community have no immunity to the second strain because they were too healthy to catch the first one.Does that sound logical to you?Thanks for your work. You really are an asset.A gift!

  24. A hard work? Not at all. It becomes automatic soon and almost a fun to get the wished result. BTW, that code is of world applicability, quite universal indeed. As a matter of fact, I try to not spoil the original format of that table in order to fit any info. On the other hand, I was supposing you analyzing that disease/eruption relationship and yes, very interesting for everything sounds logic. And about your bottom lines… You're very welcome. Your public words are a real reward. Diolch. Oddly, you are so nice, now and then.

  25. Epidemics


     165-180  Roman Empire  Smallpox  

     541–542  Eastern Roman (Byzantine)  Empire bubonic plague

     639  Palestine  Bubonic plague  

     1500-1900  The Americas  Smallpox, measles, typhoid, etc.  

     1800-1803  Spain  Yellow fever  

     1801 Ottoman Empire   Egypt bubonic plague  

     1811  United States  Yellow fever  

     1812  Egypt  Plague  

       Ottoman Empire    

     1813  Malta  Plague  


     1816-1819  Ireland  Typhus  

     1820-1823  United States  Fever  

     1821  Spain  Yellow fever  

     1828  New South Wales   Smallpox  

     1829  Netherlands  malaria  

       South Australia  Smallpox  

     1829-1835  Iran  Bubonic plague  

     1831  Egypt  Cholera  

     1831-1834  Plains Indians  Smallpox  

     1832  England, France  Cholera  

       North America    

     1833  United States  Cholera  


     1834-1836  Egypt  Bubonic plague  

     1837  United States  Typhus  

     1837–1838  Great Plains  Smallpox  

     1840  Dalmatia  Plague  

       South Africa  Smallpox  

     1841  United States  Yellow fever  


     1847–1848  Canada epidemic  Typhus  

      Worldwide  Influenza  

     1848  Egypt  Cholera  

     1848-1849  North America  Cholera  

     1850  United States  Yellow fever  

     1850-1851  North America  Influenza  

     1851  United States  Cholera  

     1852    Yellow fever  

     1852-1860  Russia  Cholera  

     1852-1871  Argentina  Yellow fever  

     1853  Ottoman Empire  Plague  

     1855  United States  Yellow fever  

     1855-1950  Worldwide  Bubonic Plague  

     1857  Portugal  Yellow fever  

       Victoria, Australia   Smallpox  

     1857-1859  Europe, North America, South America   Influenza  

     1863-1879  Middle East  Cholera  

     1865  Egypt  Cholera  

     1866–1867  Russia, Germany  Cholera  

     1867  Australia  Measles  

       Iraq  Plague  

     1868-1869  Worldwide  Influenza  

     1870-1871  Germany  Smallpox  

     1877  Russian Empire  Plague  

     1881  Egypt  Cholera  

     1885  Montreal  Smallpox  

     1889-1890  Worldwide  Influenza  

     1896-1906  Congo Basin  Trypanosomiasis   

     1900  West Africa  Yellow fever  

     1900-1904  San Francisco  Bubonic plague  

     1900-1920  Uganda  Trypanosomiasis   

     1902  Egypt  Cholera  

     1903  India  Plague  

     1810-1812  China  Bubonic plague  

     1818-1922  Russia  Tiphus  

     1842-1844  Egypt  Malaria  

     1946  China  Bubonic plague  

       Egypt  Relapsing fever  

     1947  Egypt  Cholera  

     1957-1958  Worldwide  Influenza  

     1961-present  Worldwide  Cholera  

     1968  France  Plague  

     1972  Yugoslavia  Smallpox  

     1974  India  Smallpox  

     1981-present  Worldwide  HIV/AIDS  

     1990  South America  Cholera  

     1994  India  Plague  

     1996  West Africa  Meningitis  

     2000  Central America   Dengue fever  

     2001  Nigeria  Cholera  

       South Africa    

     2003  Algeria  Plague  

     2004  Afghanistan   Leishmaniasis  

       Bangladesh  Cholera  

       Indonesia  Dengue fever  

       Senegal  Cholera  

       Sudan  Ebola  

     2005  Mali  Yellow fever  

     2005  Singapur  Dengue fever  

     2006  Angola  Cholera  

       Congo  Plague  

       India  Malaria  

       India  Chikungunyia virus  

     2006  Philippines    

       Pakistan  Dengue fever  


     2007  Congo  Ebola  


     2007  Nigeria  Polio  

       Puerto Rico, Dominican Republic, Mexico   Dengue fever  

     2007  Ethiopia    


       Iraq  Cholera   

       Somalia  >  


     2008  Brazil    

       Cambodia  Dengue fever  


     2008  China  Hand, foot and mouth disease  

       Madagascar  Bubonic plague  

     2008  Chad  Cholera  


     2008-2009  Zimbabwe  Cholera  

     2009  Bolivia  Dengue fever  

       Queensland, Australia    

     2009  India  Hepatitis B  

       Worldwide  Mumps  

     2009-2010  Worldwide  Influenza  

     2010-present  Hispaniola    Cholera  

     2011-present  Congo  Measles  

     2011-present  Pakistan  Dengue fever  

  26. Thanks Teresa.It looks a lot better than my effort. Surprisingly few Influenza outbreaks.And there are some weather related ones that never made it because they were of a more complex nature.In London in 1952 they ran out of coffins during a smog. It took that news for anyone to realise there was an epidemic going on. The situation was so bad the government censored the event. It was considered over before the sick had finished dying.The problem was that people with TB, emphysema and other coronary and lung problems fell victim to damp cold polluted air. I think that, as with flu, they might have survived if they had not wrapped themselves up against the cold and insulated themselves in closed rooms.Over heating and muggy environments are death breeders.Also if you are so busy being ill you fail to exercise you die when your slowed circulation prevents infections from being washed out.It's a lot to ask someone who is ill but that is the way of it.

  27. Oh don't mention it. That was a walk in the park, allowing me to practise that HTML format also.Something else, M?

  28. Originally posted by tdjmd1:

    Merge… What?

    Blend the volcanic eruption chart with the world wide epidemics one.What could be simpler? 🙂

  29. Originally posted by tdjmd1:

    Merge… What?

    Blend the volcanic eruption chart with the world wide epidemics one.What could be simpler? 🙂

  30. Since the diseases table on ran from 1946 it was pointless editing the text to match them more closely.It would be just as easy to just stick with the one disease such as Influenza and put the previous eruptions on a few lines of text.Since there doesn't seem to be a match with any of them however it is pointless doing any of it except, of course, that one HAS to show there is no connection if that is the case.Any connection to 'Flu would be hard to prove, cholera might appear to have a more logical connection. The rest of them… no. Sorry to have wasted your time.But now I am about to be sidetracked by news of events with El Hierro and the North Atlantic Oscillation. On there is a link to a chart of the NAOs. That would look good/better on a table if you could get the data from him.And someone has posted about El Hierro on the sci.geo.earthquakes site concerning the eruptions and links to lunar phases.

  31. Originally posted by tdjmd1:

    Merge… What?

    Blend the volcanic eruption chart with the world wide epidemics one.What could be simpler? :)Something a bit like this but including the 20th and 21 centuries: Year Volcano VEI 1902 La Soufrière 4? Mount Pelée 4 Santa María 6? 1903 Grímsvötn 4 1904 Mount Lolobau P 1907 Ksudach 5 1911 Mount Lolobau 4 1912 Novarupta 6 1913 Colima 5 1914 Sakurajima 4 1916 Tungurahua 4 1917 Agrihan 4 1918 Katla 4+ 1919 Kelud 4 1919 Manam 4 1924 Raikoke 4 1924 Iriomotejima 4? 1926 Avachinsky 4 1929 Komagatake 4 1931 Kliuchevskoi 4 1931 Mount Aniakchak 4 1932 Volcan De Fuego 4 1932 Cerro Azul 5+ 1933 Kharimkotan 5 1933 Suoh 4 1933 Kuchinoerabujima 4? 1937 Rabaul 4? 19431952 Parícutin 4 1945 Avachinsky 4 1946 Sarychev Peak 4 1946 China Bubonic plague1947 Hekla 4 Egypt Relapsing fever 1947 Egypt Cholera1950 Ambrym 4+ 1957-1958 Worldwide Influenza 1961-present Worldwide Cholera1951 Mount Lamington 4 1968 France Plague 1972 Yugoslavia Smallpox1952 Bagana 4 1974 India Smallpox 1981-present Worldwide HIV/AIDS1953 Mount Spurr 4 1990 South America Cholera 1994 India Plague1955 Carran-Los Venados 4 1996 West Africa Meningitis 2000 Central America Dengue fever???19551957 Bezymianny 4 2001 Nigeria Cholera South Africa 1963 Mount Agung 5 2003 Algeria Plague 2004 Afghanistan Leishmaniasis1964 Shiveluch 4+ Bangladesh Cholera Indonesia Dengue fever1965 Taal 4 Senegal Cholera Sudan Ebola1966 Kelud 4 2005 Mali Yellow fever1966 Mount Awu 4 2005 Singapur Dengue fever 2006 Angola Cholera1968 Fernandina 4 Congo Plague India Malaria1973 Tiatia 4 India Chikungunyia virus 2006 Philippines 1974 Volcán De Fuego 4 Pakistan Dengue fever India 1975 Tolbachik 4 2007 Congo Ebola Uganda 1976 Mount Augustine 4 2007 Nigeria Polio Puerto Rico, Dominican Republic, Mexico Dengue fever1980 Mount St. Helens 5 2007 Ethiopia India 1981 Alaid 4 Iraq Cholera 1981 Pagan 4 Somalia Vietnam 1982 El Chichón 5 2008 Brazil 1982 Galunggung 4 Cambodia Dengue fever Philippines 1983 Colo 4 2008 China Hand, foot and mouth disease???23000 Nevado del Ruiz 3 Madagascar Bubonic plague 2008 Chad Cholera1986 Mount Augustine 4 Vietnam 1986 Chikurachki 4 2008-2009 Zimbabwe Cholera 2009 Bolivia Dengue fever1987 Kliuchevskoi 4 Queensland, Australia 1989-1990 Mount Redoubt 3 2009 India Hepatitis B1990 Kelud 4 Worldwide Mumps 2009-2010 Worldwide Influenza1991 Mount Pinatubo 6 2010-present Hispaniola Cholera1991 Mount Hudson 5+ 2011-present Congo Measles 2011-present Pakistan Dengue fever1992 Mount Spurr 4 1993 Lascar 4 1994 Rabaul 4?

  32. Originally posted by Weatherlawyer:

    Blend the volcanic eruption chart with the world wide epidemics one.

    Aah, si! Now I got you. Looking like a quite interesting task.Originally posted by Weatherlawyer:

    Sorry to have wasted your time.

    As a mutual friend says a while ago, 'I don't consider [helping] to you a waste of time, its discovery. I enjoy it, its like a puzzle being put together.'Originally posted by Weatherlawyer:

    On there is a link to a chart of the NAOs. That would look good/better on a table if you could get the data from him.

    I would be lost at that site without a link.. Please, gimme one.

  33. I don't really know what "their" concept of the Antarctic Oscillation is. I had believed it was only applicable to the three winter months and I think it is divined by means of temperature.To me that didn't make a lot of sense and held less likelihood of any usefulness. So once I learned about it it joined upper cloud meteorology in the bin. It is far too general and far too much like statistics for my tastes.My particular understanding of the concept is sea level pressure systems, all year around -and it can change in a week. "They" make "theirs" an average of all three months.Which would make the idea of a chart meaningless. So what he (This Bruce bloke) did to write it I can't say.The concept of El Nino came from local weather-lore that the Peruvian coastal indians passed on to the Conquistadoes. Well before there were thermometers, never mind barometers.With the barometer, someone in what is now Indonesia made a connection between there and Australian waters. This was in the 19th century and largely forgotedid.He noticed the air pressure was low in one region when high in the other.Which is as far as I have got with the acoustic theory of weather. Do you have the same fishing tales to tell in Venezuela that the Pacific Peruvians had?Or is it all fished out anyway these days?

  34. Originally posted by Weatherlawyer:

    El Nino

    El Niño..Originally posted by Weatherlawyer:

    Do you have the same fishing tales to tell in Venezuela that the Pacific Peruvians had?

    I don't know, but my bro in law is been born in a coastline town. I'm going to ask him for fishing tales. I have heard he loves fishing in the sea..

  35. Originally posted by Weatherlawyer:

    I thought you might read the threads. I gave a rough guide in the above thread.

    Okay. Thank you.Perhaps… I shall ask him… perhaps.

  36. Originally posted by tdjmd1:

    I have heard he loves fishing in the sea..

    It's one of the three most popular places to do that.Originally posted by tdjmd1:

    Do you want that table of Central England Temperature, for instance?

    Not really.I thought you might read the threads. I gave a rough guide in the above thread.If you wanted to ask this Bruce fellow for his data you might put it into a table. It is probably almost a machine code cypher devised as short-hand for meteorologists though.

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