Storm. The Irving The Krick Controversy.

Weather predicting and why planet locations may affect the weather.

A brilliant meteorologist at Cal Tech, developed a theory that weather was not created on the earth's surface but developed from the top of the air envelope down. …

The Krick Controversy

Originally posted by Roger L. Jewell (edited):

I recently became acquainted with a book known as Storm, by Victor Boesen. It documents the life-long struggle of a man named Victor Krick with the US Weather Bureaucracy. This book is required reading for anyone who is attempting to introduce new information into the weather predicting system. In fact "beware" it is quite discouraging.

Mr. Krick, a brilliant young meteorologist at 'Cal Tech,'in 1933 began to developed a theory that weather was not created on the earth's surface but developed from the top of the earth's air envelope down. In another words: the as then unknown jet-streams were rearranged by something still farther up.

Krick could also see long-term repetitive patterns in the high and low pressure areas as they formed on different parts of the world. Using these similar pattern he would predict weather over great periods of time.

The book does not say he was correlating these repeating patterns to the cycles of the moon or the planets giving exact dates years in advance.
Not too much like astrology for the US Military in World War 2.

His [played down] involvement in planning the dates for the North African Invasion and the D-Day landings are a matter of record. Yet the US Weather Bureau still does not use his methods for long-term weather predicting.

I am interested in his work for one simple reason:
I also believe weather is caused by influences very high in the atmosphere. I believe these very high influences are in the solar winds. My theory is these solar wind variations are in part caused by the moon and the planets.

When the planets are introduced you are quickly placed in the same category as Astrologers. But Johannes Kepler was also an Astrologer, he created the formula and laws we use to calculate the movement of the planets.

For 70 years the egos of a few top American Meteorologists we have been denied accurate weather information costing thousands of lives.

As I believe I prove in my book Riding The Wild Orb, the planets have an affect on the weather. I would appreciate your comment. http://www.jewellhistories.com/

http://www.jewellhistories.com/Irving_Krick.htm

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10 thoughts on “Storm. The Irving The Krick Controversy.

  1. In my youth online (my late 30's I think) I used to frequent a weather group on MSN and I distinctly remember writing about cloud seeding based on what the BBC had to say on the subject. Broadly it was negative; though there was an Horizon programme that supported the idea of further research.How I wish now that I knew what sort of a spokesman for the various governmental agencies the BBC is:The Rainmaker Thursday, 5th March 1998 at 9.30pm on BBC2Dr Graeme Mather has dedicated his entire working life to proving once and for all that clouds can be made to rain by human intervention. Now, after 30 years of fruitless searching, Graeme believes that he has made the breakthrough that will make cloud-seeding a legitimate science. Horizon tells the story of one man's persistence and his amazing discovery that could end droughts and revolutionise water management the world over. On graduating from university, Canadian-born Dr Mather was warned by his tutor: "Whatever you do, don't be seduced by the challenge of weather modification. You'll waste your time and your reputation." Graeme ignored that advice and embarked on a career that has seen numerous false dawns and attracted the growing scepticism of his fellow scientists. Then, just as Mather was on the point of accepting defeat, he had his eureka moment, a chance observation that revealed a new way of seeding clouds. Suddenly the frustrations of 30 years were swept aside as he and his colleagues in South Africa put the new theory to the test. Seven years on, Graeme's discovery is now undergoing the final, independent trials that will prove its legitimacy. Cloud-seeding is not a new idea, but for over 100 years it has been more of an act of faith than a science, as meteorologists and drought-stricken farmers have tried seeding clouds with a variety of "magic ingredients", none of which worked to any measurable degree. The theory was fine, the practice was a failure. That is, until Graeme had his eureka moment. Graeme's breakthrough occurred when he observed that pollutants from a local paper-mill had an extraordinary effect on storms passing overhead – they rained harder and longer. Since then, he and his research company CloudQuest have worked tirelessly to perfect the technology that can repeat this phenomenon and to establish the data gathering techniques that prove it works. Their South African experiments have been impressive, recording increases in the rainfall from clouds of between 40-60%. Horizon goes to Mexico to witness the trials that finally seem to be vindicating Graeme's work, much to the astonishment of sceptics. Dramatic sequences of mid-air cloud-seeding and sudden downpours bear witness to a technological revolution in the making. They also reveal the natural science that lies behind the visually spectacular, but secret world of clouds. For Graeme it marks the successful culmination of a life's work. Adam Bullmore and Denman Rooke's film tells the remarkable story of the triumph of persistence and good luck over failure and frustration. In his own words: "It's how science ought to work, but almost never does." But sadly, Graeme will never see the fruits of his work. Shortly before filming was completed, Graeme Mather died.

  2. Irving Crick by Victor Bosen:

    Jimmy Carter's social secretary asked Irving Krick what the weather was going to be for several outdoor functions. "We'd like to know a month or more ahead."

    Krick was honoured to serve once again as long-range weather forecaster for the First Family.

    The Johnsons had been pleased with his work:

    "Whether your weather prediction was six days, six weeks, or six months ahead of time, it was always accurate," Bess Abell gratefully wrote Krick at the finish of the Johnson years in the White House.

    "I leaned on your prediction in selecting the date for the first White House State Dinner in the Rose Garden, I remember it so well – Mr. Choy [Eddie Choy, one of Krick's men] said it would be the perfect night, but the day would give us ulcers – there would be dark clouds and high winds, but no rain."

    "How right he was! About four o'clock in the afternoon everyone wanted to move tables, place cards and bouquets inside-but I stood firm by your prediction. At eight o'clock when the guests arrived, it was the lovely, calm and balmy evening you promised. What a beautiful, memorable night it was . . ."

    Referring to another of Krick's forecasts, Mrs. Abell continued

    "Who else would be able to pick the one day in November for Mrs. Johnson to picnic and hike through the Redwoods under clear skys?"

    For weeks before and after that day it rained but her day there was perfectly delightful."

    Mrs. Johnson added that his "well-known-in-advance predictions have been of invaluable help in planning everything from parties on the White House lawn to picnics on the coast of Maine."

    Krick could have told President Carter five years ahead that it would be cold but sunny for his inauguration. "We couldn't predict who the President would be," Krick said, "but we knew what kind of day it would be."

    Krick predicted the conditions for the inauguration of Dwight D. Eisenhower, following this with the same service for John F. Kennedy and Lyndon Johnson.

    Krick's abilities had been well-known to Ike, it was Krick along with a former student of his at the California Institute of Technology, who forecast the critical five days Eisenhower needed to complete the invasion of Normandy in World War II -even though all the other weathermen involved (including four British) insisted that a five-day forecast was impossible.

    In 1969 he forecast the drought of the 1970s, which dried up the country for several years. And as the dry areas have gotten wider and wider and lasted longer and longer his cloud-seeding services to bring rain have increased from farmers, ranchers, hydroelectric firms, water users everywhere, both at home and overseas.

    The clients keep coming to Krick, despite unremitting efforts of the United States Weather Bureau to discredit him. The government claims his methods are "unscientific" and deny that he is able to do the things for which his customers have been paying him handsome fees, some for as long as thirty years.

    No man can predict the weather for more than about two days, the Weather Bureau argued. After that, the accuracy of the forecast falls off rapidly.

    Krick agrees that the weather can't be forecast beyond two days by the Weather Bureau.

    "They have no effective forecast methods, they go at it wrong. They deal with effect instead of cause. They haven't recognized that the atmosphere operates as a unit and is controlled by extraterrestrial forces, not by what they observe near the surface."

    Satellites send back pictures of what's going on: "These only mean more misinformation sent out more often to more people."

    As for seeding the clouds with silver iodide to increase rain and snow, the government considers this to be of doubtful merit, too.

    After thirty years or so of trying it, and as two-thirds of the nation's 3,000 counties received emergency relief in what the New York Times headlined as the Worst Drought in Centuries, it still classified cloud-seeding for more rain as "experimental," needing yet more "research."

    The refusal of the government to acknowledge that the question was settled long ago: that cloud seeding is a sound, well-established scientific procedure "has cost this country billions -not millions, -billions.

    The catastrophic droughts we've been hit with in the Seventies could have been prevented."

  3. Originally posted by that man above:

    I also believe weather is caused by influences very high in the atmosphere.

    It sounds quite religious but I think you certainly love quote some words from an ancient book…

    Raise YOUR eyes high up and see.

    Perhaps that makes sense at last.. ["There is One who is dwelling above the circle of the earth, the dwellers in which are as grasshoppers."] …To the earthy hoppers.

  4. Originally posted by STORM by Victor Boesen:

    At the University of California at Berkeley, he selected courses for electrical engineering. Later he completed two years of physics in one, and graduated from the University of California as a physicist in 1928.

    His first contact with meteorology came during his college years. His unit of the ROTC was the Coast Artillery, in those days still considered vital to national defense, and at one summer camp the practice range for moving targets was the Strait of Juan de Fuca, off Fort Worden in Washington.

    Firing computations for range and azimuth were based on a standard atmosphere chart for density, and on balloon runs for winds. One day the fledgling coast defenders dropped a twelve-inch mortar shell down the funnel of the boat lowing the target.

    The incident stuck in Krick's mind. They needed to know more about the atmosphere, particularly the winds at the top of mortar or anti-aircraft trajectory. Some years later, he helped to pioneer the use of sounding balloons that sent back upper air information in real time and worked up better ballistics tables for fire control, in particular high altitude anti-aircraft guns.

    Krick's brother-in-law, Horace Byers, was studying meteorology at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. "Look into this field," Byers wrote Krick from MIT. "It's going to be very important to aviation. I can get you a fellowship from Rossby to study here."

    Because he had now been out of school a couple of years, Krick enrolled at the California Institute of Technology to refresh himself on math and physics and learn what he could of meteorology before he went east to MIT, at the time the only school in the United States teaching graduate meteorology.

    At CalTech, Krick met Dr. Beno Gutenberg, director of the school's seismological laboratory, who was also teaching a course in the structure of the atmosphere. Gutenberg had been a weather man with the German Army in World War I and took a special interest in young Krick. He gave him a desk in his office and, to supplement his work in the classroom, sent him to study the weather maps at the United States Weather Bureau in Los Angeles.

    Under Gutenberg's influence, he came to think globally in considering what went on atmospherically. He studied the planetary wind systems instead of mere local air movements. He saw that what happened in one place produced an effect elsewhere -that Newton's law of motion was in operation. He realized that trying to solve the mysteries of the weather by studying a small area of the atmosphere is like trying to figure out how a machine works by looking at a single part.

    With the big picture in mind, pupil and teacher took up the ideas of Professor Wilhelm Bjerknes of the Geophysical Institute of Bergen, Norway, and his son Jacob. The elder Bjerknes had lectured earlier at CalTech on hydrodynamics. The two Norwegians held that by analyzing air masses of different origins and characteristics, where the two masses met could be determined and the weather along the boundary predicted.

    There was nothing really new about the theory of moving air masses and the practice of drawing a line between them to show where they meet. They had been discovered and written about nearly a century earlier, in 1841, by Professor James Pollard Espy, who drew lines on the weather charts he prepared for the Navy, indicating weather fronts moving across the country, west to east.

    But the practice of drawing fronts on weather maps was gradually abandoned. The idea grew that more or less all one needed to fore tell the weather was to follow surface barometric pressure patterns on the map. If the patterns were moving in a given direction at, say, 600 miles a day, then it followed that a change of weather would be coming up the next day 600 miles farther down the line. The trouble was, of course, that too often pressure patterns have a habit of slowing down or speeding up, changing direction, and decreasing or increasing their intensity, thus wrecking the forecast. Yetthis is still essentially the way weather is forecast by government agencies, even now, toward the end of the twentieth century.

    Krick showed such promise that Gutenberg persuaded him to give up his plans to attend MIT. "Stay here at CalTech," Gutenberg urged. "I think you have the capability to work with me, and perhaps eventually they'll set up a course in meteorology, either under me or somebody else, and you can become a part of it."

    He stayed. In another year he felt he had learned enough about the weather to put his knowledge to use. With a roll of weather maps under his arm, he presented himself to Jimmie James, chief pilot and vice president of operations for Western Air Express; forerunner of Western Airlines.

    James was interested in any system of weather forecasting that promised to improve the chances of flights getting through and he listened patiently, if skeptically, as his rather dandified young caller expounded on the merits of the Norwegian Air Mass Analysis method of weather forecasting.

    "Weather is made by the battle always going on between warm air moving up from the tropics and the cold air coming down from the arctic," Krick explained, unrolling his maps on the counter "Where the two air masses meet, the cold air plows in under the warm air, throwing it upward to where its cooler and causing it to lose its moisture in the form of rain or snow.

    We call this boundary between cold and warm air a "weather front".

    "I see," James nodded, more or less absently. "If you know where one of these fronts is going to occur," Krick went on, "you can tell a great deal about what the weather is going to be along its length as it moves."

    "Your timing is pretty good," James interrupted finally. "Joe George, our regular meteorologist, is going on vacation. If you want to take a job as a clerk, handling the mail and doing some of the paper work, you can draw those funny-looking maps and help us on the weather in your spare time."

    He talked with the pilots about air masses, giving them insights into how it helped to know about them because of the rough weather frequently found in their vicinity. They were soon listening to his advice.

    "If you fly at 10,000 feet on the way out and at a different altitude coming back, you'll have a tail wind both ways," Krick would tell them.

    It didn't take the airline long to adopt the slogan: "Western Air Express planes always have tail winds."

    One day, as pilot Fred Kelly prepared to take off for Salt Lake City, Krick advised him, "There's a cold front just west of Milford, Utah. If you'll sit down at Milford for a couple of hours, the storm will pass to the east and you can go on."

    Kelly gratefully reported on his return that he might have been in serious trouble over the Wasatch Mountains but for Krick's warning about the storm. It had been quite turbulent, but spent itself in about the time Krick estimated, allowing Kelly to resume his flight to Salt Lake City.

    Krick thereupon was made full-time weatherman for the line, with a free hand to go about forecasting in his own way, unfettered by conventional procedures. He drew lines on the maps showing where air masses came together, causing weather fronts, wind changes, and other effects important for the airman to know about.

    "What are these lines you've been putting on the maps?" George demanded. Krick's explanation failed to mollify him. "Don't mess with the weather maps!" he ordered.

    Jimmie James talked the matter over with the pilots, who agreed the lines helped and were a step forward. "I want the lines left in," James ruled.

    In the early morning hours of April 4, 1933, Krick's habit of searching out fronts on weather maps involved him in an event which firmly set the course of his future. With an early morning class at CalTech, Krick took a nap each night during the five hours of little flying activity when the IIO-miles-an-hour Fokker F-IOs flew from Salt Lake City to Las Vegas. As he turned in, he remarked to the radio operator, "I'm glad we're not flying off the coast of New Jersey tonight. There's a cold front coming down from the northeast and a warm front coming up from the southwest. When the two meet there is going to be one awful mix-up. It'll be very violent." Krick was no sooner asleep than he was shaken awake by the radioman.

    "My God, the Akron just went down in the Atlantic off Bamegat Light-right where you said all that rough weather was coming!" he exclaimed. The Akron was an enormous airship 78 feet long, large enough to accommodate five airplanes aboard. It was the pride of the United States Navy. Seventy-three men died in the disaster, the headline event of the day.

    At school later in the morning Krick sought out Dr. Theodore von Karman. Known as "master of the wind" for his knowledge of fluid mechanics, this Hungarian-born scientist was chairman of CalTech's Guggenheim Aeronautics Laboratory, which later was to spawn the world-famous Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Von Karman also headed the Goodyear Airship Institute at Akron, Ohio.

    "The Akron never had a chance," Krick said. "The wind shear set up by these two opposing air masses blowing in opposite directions was bound to destroy the ship. She should never have been flown into this kind of weather."

  5. Von Karman was impressed: "Get me the velocity of these winds and we'll calculate the stresses on the ship," von Karman told him.

    The calculations, by Frank Wattendorf, Karman's assistant, proved Krick to be correct: the Akron, broken in two like a stick across the knee of a giant, was doomed from the moment the ship left the hangar, although the United States Weather Bureau had reported that the storm posed no danger to flying that day.

    Von Karman called on Dr. Robert Andrews Millikan, chairman of CalTech's executive council, Nobel laureate for isolating the electron and measuring its charge, thereby opening the way for the age of electronics and holder of the Roosevelt Association Medal for his discovery of the cosmic ray.

    "Chief," von Karman began, addressing Millikan by the title everyone used, "I think commercial aviation is here to stay and that meteorology is going to play a more and more important role in it as time passes. I think we ought to set up some sort of meteorology course for graduate students, maybe with Krick teaching it."

    Millikan, General John J. Pershing's weatherman in World War I, agreed. "It's time weather forecasting was improved. We need to be able to forecast farther ahead and to be more accurate."

    Krick, earned his master's degree in Meteorology that summer, by the fall of 1933, a few months after the Akron disaster, he headed Cal Tech's meteorology department, teaching the practical side of forecasting while von Karman and Gutenberg dealt in the theoretical aspects of the subject. One of Krick's pupils was Western Air Express' Joe George, sent over by Jimmie James.

    Tthe classes included students from all branches of the armed services, the United States Weather Bureau, the air lines and from foreign governments. A frequent visitor was Lieutenant Colonel Henry H. Arnold, commanding officer at March Air Force Base, at Riverside, California, whose bombers carried Dr. Millikan's cosmic ray equipment on special trips aloft.

    In his book: Global Mission, Arnold recalled the first time he met Krick, in December 1940 describing it as one of his "most unforgettable contacts with an academic scientist."

    Krick's analysis of what happened to the doomed Akron and why, had affected him as few other things he "had heard in my twenty years of flying, I watched Dr. Krick's work eagerly after that."

    As a teacher as well as a student, now preparing for his doctorate Krick was paid $117a month enabling him to quit his fob at Western Air Express and devote full time to the academic life.

    After Krick left the airline, Clancy Dayhoff, its public relations chief, proudly published the claim that during the months Krick forecast the weather for them he had been right 96.4 percent of the time. The best the Weather Bureau had been able to do, Dayhoff wrote, was around 63 percent.

    Krick received his Ph.D in Meteorology in 1934 and Dr. Millikan sent him to Europe:
    "I want you to visit every meteorology institute you can this summer. See what they are doing and when you come back to Cal Tech I want you to point our research in a different direction from what everybody else is doing."

    In Germany, Krick ran across a meteorologist named Stuve who had some new ideas in getting at the weather's behavior. Stuve worked from the top down, looking down through the atmosphere from above rather than up through it from below, as others were doing. He believed [10 years before jet streams were known in the USA] that the heat balance at the outer limits of the atmosphere governed the planetary winds and that what went on with the weather in the lower portion of the atmosphere was the result of what happened above it.

    Stuve's thinking reminded Krick of Gutenberg's cosmic view of things back at CalTech. It went beyond that of the Norwegians, who were working with contrasting air masses which produced weather as they moved about in the lower atmosphere. Krick asked:

    What moved these masses around in the first place?

  6. What excited Krick was something he picked up in Leipzig from Professor Gerhard Wieckman. Wieckman told him he had discovered that there was a systematic progression of local barometric pressures which registered on a barograph, an instrument for recording air pressures at the earth's surface:

    "I can make long-range forecasts from this,"

    Krick was convinced that the Germans were closer to long-range weather prediction than anyone else. What he learned that day in the German woods, combined with further researches at CalTech, would have a bearing on the outcome of the coming war.

    "I feel there is a good possibility that we will be able to make forecasts that go far out-well beyond where people are working today," Krick told Dr. Millikan, who directed Krick to press on with his studies.

    Did the weather behave chaotically, as many argued (and still do), or were there orderly, recurring patterns to it?

    Krick and his students began to examine the entire complex of wind systems for as much of the globe as they could. By diligent search and persistence they were able to collect weather data going back five years for most of the Northern Hemisphere-Eastern Asia, the Pacific, North America, the Atlantic and Europe.

    By the late thirties they had established that they could group barometric pressure patterns and related daily weather in blocks of six days. They found there was a finite number of these patterns, or weather types, as they called them, for each octant of the globe, or for each quadrant of a hemisphere. They were able to classify and catalogue all weather types occurring within the five years they had studied.

    The six-day weather types became the building blocks, providing a basis for long-range forecasting. Once a weather type was identified, the weather across one quadrant of the hemisphere could be predicted at any location for the next six days.

    The pressure configurations for a given type were found to be the same in winter as in summer, irrespective of conditions at the earth's surface. This indicated that control did, indeed, come from the upper atmosphere, far above the earth.

    However, the weather associated with each pattern changed with the seasons.

    Thus, if one could determine the sequence in which these weather types occurred for a month, a season, or years ahead, the way was open to make ultra long-range weather forecasts. Krick and his associates would reach this achievement in the late 1950s.

    As they learned more and more in the laboratory, Millikan encouraged Krick to start putting the knowledge to practical use, applying it in the field. "Make what you're doing relevant to society," Millikan counseled. "Without that, it all means nothing."

  7. Originally posted by Weatherlawyer:

    By the late thirties they had established that they could group barometric pressure patterns and related daily weather in blocks of six days. They found there was a finite number of these patterns, or weather types, as they called them, for each octant of the globe, or for each quadrant of a hemisphere. They were able to classify and catalogue all weather types occurring within the five years they had studied.

    In other words he discovered that the weather has a 6 day wave attached to it.This would conform to a lunar spell if you consider that there is a day or so lost to seismic activity when one spell take over from another of a different type.This is similar to the African 5 day wave that conventional meteorology still can't decide the veracity of.He also discovered that there are only so many patterns. Take for example the anticyclone in high latitudes. In summer they bring warmth and in winter, cold. This is because they are directly open to the sun by day and to the rapid loss of any heat stored by it overnight. Thus in summer's long days it is warm and in winters long nights it is cold.Almost as soon as they were invented he got access to and was able to programme computers to analyse his data. It was rto do something of that sort that lead to the construction of computers in the first place.In order to compare lots of bits of German code in WW2; to find matches and thus aid decryption, the British Post Office engineer at Bletchley Park invented an electronic analyser.It wasn't so much a computer but a text recognition system. 10 years later Krick was using something to get instant results of that sort:Matching weather patterns (and possibly matching solar system patterns?) It should be possible to at least replicate what he has done.

  8. The rats nest:

    As the demand for Krick's services increased, Weather Bureau men began dogging his footsteps, prodded by Dr. Carl Rossby, the former head of MIT's meteorology department. Rossby had come to grief after he received an ultimatum from the chief of the Air Force Weather Service, Captain Robert M. Losey, a former stu dent of Krick's, that unless Rossby adopted Krick's training methods for his own Air Force students he would get no more of them.

    Rossby refused and was fired replaced by Dr. Sverre Petterssen of Norway, who had lectured at CalTech at the invitation of Krick, Petterssen's pupil for six weeks during Krick's 1934 visit to Europe.

    As Assistant Chief of the United States Weather Bureau for Education, Rossby set up a half-dozen competing weather schools at colleges and universities, including one at the University of California at Los Angeles, twenty miles from Cal Tech.

    Weather Bureau men told Krick's clients and potential clients that his methods were not "scientific." At best, they said, Krick's theories were "experimental," as yet without basis in sound scientific truth. "Beware of the salesman scientist," they cautioned.

    The Weather Bureau offered a specialized service in competition. But many of the defectors were soon back, happy again to pay for what the Weather Bureau failed to deliver.

    Frustrated and jealous, Weather Bureau officials slashed at Krick in print. In reply Dr. Millikan said of Krick:

    "No one who done more toward improving meteorology than Irving Krick. The movie and citrus industries have desired to pay Krick something for giving them forecasts superior to those that they can get through the Weather Bureau for nothing. I suspect jealousy of Krick's success on the part of some Weather Bureau officials."

    William S. Barton, science writer of The Los Angeles Times:

    <br"In yesterday's article in the Times it was pointed out that the Los Angeles office of the Weather Bureau was considered by the reporter to have been wrong seven times straight in its afternoon forecasts . . . On five of those days rain fell that the bureau failed to predict."

    Krick, on the other hand, had predicted rain for each of those five days, Barton wrote. On another day Barton went on, "when a near-flood of two inches of rain fell, Krick predicted, 'cloudy and heavy rain,' while the Bureau predicted, 'partly cloudy with light showers.'"

    Barton concluded:

    In marked contrast to the Weather Bureau, Kricks clients were saying:

    "Now that we have (your system)," wrote President C. R. Smith of American Airlines, "I wonder how we ever got along without it."

    "Your forecasts have been hitting us right between the eyes," wrote Marshall Field & Company in Chicago.

    General Manager Arnold Eddy of the University of Southern California sent word of "how perfectly your predictions came true during the current foot ball season . . . We grade you an 'A'."

    "We are now on our second year of using your long-range fore casting service and I wish . . . to compliment you on the accuracy of your forecasts," said the New York-Alaska Gold Dredging Corporation of Seattle.

    From the Delco Appliance Division of the General Motors Corporation, Rochester, New York: ". . . Your ability to forecast well in advance of actual conditions with as high a degree of accuracy as you achieved last year is very surprising."

    Commonwealth & Southern Corporation of Birmingham, Alabama, generating more than 100 million kilowatt-hours a week, mostly with water power, had found Krick's monthly rain fore casts for the Coosaw River "at least 75 percent accurate."

    Fruit and vegetable growers, the James G. McCarrick Company of Robs town, Texas, wanted "to thank you for the service rendered us from your long-range forecasts the past two years." The forecasts had helped both in harvesting and planting and "also in determining our movement of vegetables through the stormy periods."

    The Anderson-Tully Company, of Memphis, writing of how helpful Krick's forecasts had been to their business of logging, hoped that his efforts to improve the weather service "will be encouraged by the Federal Government. If war should come, as it well might, long-range weather forecasting would be of the utmost importance . …. to our national defence."

    There was no way to top the words of William C. Ackerman, graduate manager of the "Associated Students" of the University of California in Los Angeles:

    "In all of the forecasts made for us during . . . [the two years they had been using Krick's forecasts] Dr. Krick has been 100 percent correct in his predictions. The University would be very much interested in any help that might be given Dr. Krick to accelerate his long-range forecasting research at the California Institute of Technology."

    Oliver L. Parks, president of Parks Air College, an aviation school in St. Louis, Missouri, 'sent word, "We have talked at considerable length with certain Air Corps officers about the success of the forecasts. I hope you get proper appropriations to carry on your fine work."

    The California Division of Highways, concerned with snows in the mountains, had this to say: "The experience we have had with the long-range prediction proves ever more convincing that such service is necessary in order that storm damage to our state highway system can be kept to a minimum."

    Referring to several recent storms, the highway authorities continued, "The accurate timing and indication of their intensity enabled us to prepare for them to a greater extent than would other wise have been done, the saving from damage to us at that time more offsetting the cost of your service for a long period of time"

    To the Appalachian Electric Power Company in Charleston, West Virginia, Krick's service "has practically become indispensable . . . we now wonder how we ever got along without it."

    This was a long long time before computers. File systems were written and maintained by hand and hard labour. A lifetime ago. Who would put those files online?

    And where?

  9. I'll post the edits of what Krick got up to in World War Two on another thread.

    For "exceptionally meritorious conduct in the performance of outstanding services" during the war, namely, the application of long-range weather forecasting to the uses of battle, Krick was awarded the Bronze Star with Oak Leaf Cluster, the Legion of Merit, and France's croix de guerre avec etoile de vermeille.But apart from the kudos, the prophet classically found little honour in his home country, save from those who knew him best. These liked his idea for extending worldwide the benefits of long-range weather forecasting for the needs of peace, as it had been made to serve in war.Krick wrote of his plan to his old friend. Dr. Robert A. Millikan at the California Institute of Technology, asking for a reinstatement of his credentials at the school and for an extension of the leave of absence which General Arnold had obtained for him at the outset of war.Dr. Millikan responded with enthusiasm:"In view of your large experience in forecasting for the D-Day invasion and the other weather services connected with the AAF in the European theatre and elsewhere," Millilkan wrote on June 5, 1945, "it would be useful for you before returning to the Institute to make contacts with the European meteorologists who, like yourself, are interested in the improvement of long-range weather forecasts, particularly in view of the fact that you inform me that you find that French, Russian and other European meteorologists have been approaching the long-range forecasting problem with techniques very similar to those which you yourself have developed."

  10. I'll post the edits of what Krick got up to in World War Two on another thread.

    For "exceptionally meritorious conduct in the performance of outstanding services" during the war, namely, the application of long-range weather forecasting to the uses of battle, Krick was awarded the Bronze Star with Oak Leaf Cluster, the Legion of Merit, and France's croix de guerre avec etoile de vermeille.But apart from the kudos, the prophet classically found little honour in his home country, save from those who knew him best. These liked his idea for extending worldwide the benefits of long-range weather forecasting for the needs of peace, as it had been made to serve in war.Krick wrote of his plan to his old friend. Dr. Robert A. Millikan at the California Institute of Technology, asking for a reinstatement of his credentials at the school and for an extension of the leave of absence which General Arnold had obtained for him at the outset of war.Dr. Millikan responded with enthusiasm:"In view of your large experience in forecasting for the D-Day invasion and the other weather services connected with the AAF in the European theatre and elsewhere," Millilkan wrote on June 5, 1945, "it would be useful for you before returning to the Institute to make contacts with the European meteorologists who, like yourself, are interested in the improvement of long-range weather forecasts, particularly in view of the fact that you inform me that you find that French, Russian and other European meteorologists have been approaching the long-range forecasting problem with techniques very similar to those which you yourself have developed."

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