The relationship between Tornadoes, Volcanic activity and Blocking Highs.
I know I should do all this with pictures but I am on a public machine and totally disorganised.
So here is a thousand words instead: …
Nobody knows what causes Blocking Highs, everyone knows that volcanoes are a total mystery and if we are so clever, why is the richest nation on the planet despite all the interest it has in them, ALWAYS caught out by tornadoes?
The answer is that nobody had ever thought to put them all together before. When I first started looking at the cause of earthquakes, I was surprised to find that it was a totally unrelated branch of science to volcano research.
When Bernard Chouet discovered wave harmonies in volcanic eruptions his work was dismissed. Then when all the experts who had different views were all killed in a volcanic eruption, some of the clever buggers that were left started to rationalise things out.
And that's about as far as the work has gone to date.
Now throw out the afterbirth with the bath water and dig in the rubbish to find the baby:
Something strange occurs in the upper atmosphere (often in the dead of winter) to bring about a tremendous heating phenomenon. It has only been discovered fairly recently as satellite measuring equipment has been invented. (it takes 40 million dollars to launch a rocket so research is slow and expensive even if the technology IS fairly well known.)
Anyway a source of lists for SSWs would be the way to go on this.
We know when volcanoes erupt. You can always tell by the colour of the smoke and by the amount of ash falling on everyone locally.
But apart from that, it isn't widely known that vulcanology hasn't progressed far from the days when research into them involved poking vents with a big stick. Few volcanoes are monitored and almost none of the undersea vents are.
So there is no telling when a volcano first begins to heat the region.
What might the background heat BE for a volcano anyway?
As for tornadoes…
Well we are still in the poke it with a stick format with them too.
We have computer weather models and the BoM runs in particular are VERY GOOD at pulling those three rabbits out of the hat in succession. Very good indeed.
This is from (guess what year) a newsgroup post by an expert (despite the fact he might be a scientist I have a great deal of respect for him) meteorologist: Martin Rowley.
"The impact that events occurring in the stratosphere have on the troposphere is discussed…
…whether there was recent research on all this. I've used the search facility here:
http://www.metoffice.gov.uk/corporate/library/catalogue.html using the phrase: "Sudden Stratospheric Warming" and found 103 titles. (Latest first/cut-off 1982)
Dynamical response of low-latitude middle atmosphere to major sudden stratospheric warming events Sathishkumar, S.
Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics, VOL. 71 NO. 8/9, 2009
Blocking precursors to stratospheric sudden warming events Martius, O.
Geophysical Research Letters, VOL. 36 NO. 14, 2009
Planetary wave breaking and tropospheric forcing as seen in the stratospheric sudden warming of 2006 Coy, L.
Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, VOL. 66 NO. 2, 2009
Is there a statistical connection between stratospheric sudden warming and tropospheric blocking events? Taguchi, M.
Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, VOL. 65 NO. 4, 2008
Effect of stratospheric sudden warming and vortex intensification on the tropospheric climate Kuroda, Y.
Journal of Geophysical Research (Atmospheres), VOL. 113 NO. D15, 2008
The possible influence of stratospheric sudden warming on East Asian Weather Deng, S.
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences, VOL. 25 NO. 5, 2008
What kind of stratospheric sudden warming propagates to the troposphere? Nakagawa, K.I.
Geophysical Research Letters, VOL. 33 NO. 4, 2006
Influence of stratospheric sudden warming on the equatorial troposphere Kodera, K.
Geophysical Research Letters, VOL. 33 NO. 6, 2006
The impact of the stratosphere on the troposphere during the southern hemisphere stratospheric sudden warming, September 2002 Charlton, A.J.
Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, VOL. 131 NO.
A mechanistic model study of slowly propagating coupled stratosphere-troposphere variability Kodera, K.
Journal of Geophysical Research (Atmospheres), VOL. 105 NO. D10, 2000
Tropospheric circulation changes associated with stratospheric sudden warmings: a case study Kodera, K.
Journal of Geophysical Research (Atmospheres), VOL. 100 NO. D 6, 1995
The quasi-biennial oscillation and major stratospheric warmings: a three-dimensional model study Dameris, M.
Annales Geophysicae, VOL. 8 NO. 2, 1990
Planetary waves modulated by the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) Maillard, A.
Annales Geophysicae, VOL. 8 NO. 7/8, 1990
Sudden stratospheric warming and anomalous U.S. weather Douglas, D.A.
Monthly Weather Review, VOL. 116 NO. 1, 1988
A numerical test of connections between the stratospheric sudden warming and the quasi-biennial oscillation Bridger, A.F.C.
Journal of Geophysical Research (Atmospheres), VOL. 89 NO. D3, 1984
And of course, these couplings have been studied by researchers in Russia, Japan, China and France, to name but four, and to do an exhaustive search would require looking for works published in those languages – it has been an 'active' area of research over the last 10 years or so.
A word of caution: don't rely on a 'general' internet search for this type of subject: you need to interrogate specialised catalogues, such as this one, or the AMS etc.