Weatherlore

3 




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WEATHER LORE: 

A COLLECTION OF 

IOVERBS, SAYINGS, AND RULES 

CONCERNING THE WEATHER. 



COMPILED AND ARRANGED BY 



R. INWARDS, F. R. A. S., 

/// 

Fellow of the British Meteorological Society. 



LONDON: 
W. TWEEDIE, 337, STRAND, W.C. 

1869. 



M'CORQUODALE & Co., PRINTERS, 6, CaRDINGTON STREET, LONDON, N.W. 



J43 



829023 



To my old and tried Friend, 

THOMAS B. FOX, 
OF DEVIZES, 

This Little Book is respectfully Dedicated. 



WEATHER WISDOM- 



times AND SEASONS. 

Amongst the first attempts at weather guesses, those concerning 
the seasons and their probable fitness for agriculture, the 
breeding of animals, or the navigation of the seas, would take a 
prominent place. The weather during the winter and spring 
seems to have been narrowly watched, and the chances of a 
good harvest, a fat pasture, or a loaded orchard, inferred from 
the experience of previous years, combined with a fair reliance 
upon fortune. Some of these predictions, though not strengthened 
by modern observation, are not to be altogether despised or 
thrown aside. They at least show us what kind of weather our 
forefathers wished to take place and thought most useful at the 
times to which they refer. The sayings of French, Scotch, and 
English agree in many particulars, such, for instance, as those 
referring to Candlemas-day and the early part of February 
generally. It seems that, according to the notions of our 
ancestors, this part of the year could not be too cold, and no 
statistical evidence will ever make our farmers believe that a 
warm Christmas bodes well for an English harvest, or that a dry 
year ever did harm to the country. Some of these old sayings 
are also interesting as giving evidence of the slowly changing 
climate of this country, and it is not unlikely that at some 
distant date most of the predictions will be found inapplicable. 
Particular saints' days have also been selected as exerting special 



i 4 WEATHER WISDOM. 

Times and Seasons. 

influence over the weather, and here we are constantly treading 
on the fringes of the veil of superstition, spread by ignorance 
over all matters about which but little certain knowledge 
existed. There are, however, still believers in St. Swithin and 
St. Valentine as weather prophets, and if their favourites do 
sometimes fail to bring the expected changes, they have at least 
no worse guides than those furnished by the old Moore's and 
Zadkiel's of modern times. 

It has been thought advisable to admit the proverbs concern- 
ing the proper seasons for sowing, &c, and a table of the times 
of the flowering of certain well known plants has been added, 
so that the progress of the seasons may be watched by observing 
the punctuality of the vegetable world in heralding their 
approach. 

Year (dry) A dry year never beggars the master. French. 

„ (wet) A bad year comes in swimming. French. 

Hay A good hay year, a bad fog year. 

Nuts A good nut year, a good corn year. 

Fears A pear year, 
A dear year. 

Cherries A cherry year, 
and Plums A merry year. 
A plum year, 
A dumb year. Kent. 

Plums In the year when plums flourish, all else fails. 

Devonshire. 

Haivs A haw year, 

A snaw year. Scotland. 



WEATHER WISDOM. 



J 5 



Times and Seasons. 



Year 



ISnozv A year of snow, a year of plenty. 

Spanish and French. 

„ Snow year, good year. 

A snow year, a rich year. 



>! 



Seasons 



A serene autumn denotes a windy winter; a windy 
winter, a rainy spring- ; a rainy spring-, a serene 
summer; a serene summer, a windy autumn, 
so that the air on a balance is seldom debtor 
to itself. Lord Bacon. 



J 7 

(Satire on 

English) 



Spring 
{Thunder) 

{late) 



'g"' 



Spring 
Summer. 
Autumn. 
Winter. 



Slippy, drippy, nippy. 
Showery, flowery, bowery. 
Hoppy, croppy, poppy. 
Wheezy, sneezy, breezy. 

Attributed to Sydney Smith. 



(wet) 
Stor?)is 



I Leaves 
(oak and 
ash) 



Thunder in spring, 
Cold will bring: . 

A late spring, 

Is a great bless-ing. 

When the cuckoo comes to the bare thorn, 
Sell your cow and buy your corn ; 
But when she comes to the full bit, 
Sell your corn and buy your sheep. 
i.e. A late spring is bad for cattle, and 
An early spring is bad for corn. 

A wet spring is a sign of dry weather for harvest. 

As the days grow longer, 
The storms grow stronger. 

When the oak comes out before the ash, there will 
be fine weather in harvest; but when the ash 
comes out before the oak, the harvest will be 
wet. Midla?id Counties. 



i6 



WEATHER WISDOM. 



Times and Seasons. 



Spring 

Leaves 

(oak and 

ash) 



If the oak's before the ash, 
Then you'll only get a splash ; 
But if the ash precedes the oak, 
Then you may expect a soak. 



Whitethorns If many whitethorn blossoms or dog- roses are seen, 
<J- Dog Roses expect a severe winter. 

Sloe tree When the sloe tree is white as a sheet, 

Sow your barley whether it be dry or wet. 

Almond tree Mark well the flowering- almonds in the wood : 
If odorous blooms the bearing branches load, 
The glebe will answer to the sylvan reign, 
Great heats will follow and large crops of grain ; 
But if a wood of leaves o'ershades the tree, 
Such and so barren will the harvest be. 

Virgil — Georgics. 

Elder You may shear your sheep 
blossom When the elder blossoms peep. 



Summer 
(moist) 



Generally a moist and cool summer portends a hard 
winter. Lord Bacon. 



(dry) A dry summer never made a dear peck. 

„ Whoso hath but a mouth, 

Will ne'er in England suffer drought. 

„ Drought never bred dearth in England. 

(dry and When the sand doth feed the clay,* 
wet) England woe and well a day ; 

But when the clay doth feed the sand,f 
Then 'tis well for Angle-land. 



» 



After a famine in the stall, (bad hay crop) 
Comes a famine in the hall, (bad corn crop) 



* As in a wet summer. 
t As in a dry summer. 



WEATHER WISDOM. 



17 



Times and Seasons. 



Summer 
{dry and A famine in England begins in the horse manger. 
wet) Note. — These two last proverbs are in their tenor 

contradictory to the other proverbs concerning 
a dry summer in England and to general 
experience. 

Bramble When the bramble blossoms early in June, an early 
harvest is expected. Scotland. 

Swallows One swallow does not make a summer. 

Rain Midsummer rain, 

Spoils wine stock and grain. From the Portuguese. 

{hot and A hot and dry summer and autumn, especially if the 

dry, heat and drought extend far into September, 

extending portend an open beginning of winter, and cold 

into autumn) to succeed towards the latter part of the winter 



and beginning of spring. 



Lord Bacon. 



Autumn 
Oak 



If the oak bear much mast (acorns) it foreshows a 
long and hard winter. Worledge. 



Mountain Many rains, many rowans.* 
Ash Many rowans, many yawns. f 

Hedge fruit Many haws, 
Many snaws. 
Many sloes, 
Many cold toes. 

Many hips and haws, 
Many frosts and snaws. 



Scotland. 



Scotland. 



Scotland. 



Winter 
{early) An early winter, 
A surly winter. 



* Rowans are the fruit of the mountain ash. 

t Yawns are light grains of wheat, oats, or barley. 



i8 



WEATHER WISDOM. 



Times and Seasons. 



Winter 
(early) 

(green) 
Onions 



(clear) 
(mild) 



i> 



Thunder 



» 



If the ice will bear a g-oose before Christmas, it will 
not bear a duck after. 

A green winter makes a fat churchyard. 

When the onion's skin is thin and delicate, expect a 
mild winter ; but when the bulb is covered by a 
thick coat it is held to foreshow a severe season. 

Onion's skin very thin, 
Mild winter coming- in. 
Onion's skin thick and tough, 
Coming winter cold and rough. 

Gardened Rhyme. 

Neither give credit to a clear winter nor a cloudy . 
spring. 

Summer in winter, and summer's flood, 
Never boded an Englishman good. 

When there is a spring in the winter, or a winter in 
the spring, the year is never good. 

Who doffs his coat on winter's day, 

Will gladly put it on in May. Scotch. 

A warm winter and a cool summer, never brought 
a good harvest. French. 

A warm and open winter portends a hot and dry 
summer. Lord Bacon. 

Winter thunder 

A summer's wonder. 

Winter thunder, 

Bodes summer's hunger. 

Winter thunder, 

Rich man's good and poor man's hunger. 
2.1?., It is good for fruit and bad for corn. 

Winter thunder and summer flood, 
Never boded an Englishman good. 



WEATHER WISDOM. 



19 



Times and Seasons. 



Winter 
Snoiu 



Under water, dearth, 
Under snow, bread. 

Dearth under water, 
Bread under snow. 



Italian. 



January 
(Spring) 

Grass 



Blossoms 
(wet) 

{mild) 

(cold) 



Sowing 



A January spring is worth naething. Scotch. 

If you see grass in January, 
Lock your grain in your granary. 

If the grass grow in Janiveer, 

It grows the worse for it all the year. 

January blossoms fill no man's cellar. Portuguese. 

A wet January is not so good for corn, but not so 
bad for cattle. Portuguese. 

If January calends be summerly gay, 

It will be winterly weather till the calends of May. 

Janiveer freeze the pot by the fire. 

Froze Janiveer, 

Leader of the year ; 

Minced pies in van, 

Calf s head in rear. Churchill. 

As the Day lengthens, 
So the cold strengthens. 

Who in January sows oats, 
Gets gold and groats ; 
Who sows in May, 
Gets little that way. 

nth If on the twelfth of January the sun shine, it fore- 
shows much wind. 

Shepherd's Almanack, 1676. 



20 WEATHER WISDOM. 



Times and Seasons. 



January 

22nd (St. Vincent). If the sun shine brightly on St. 

Vincent's day, we shall have more wine than 
water. French. 

„ Remember on St. Vincent's day, 
If that the sun his beams display, 
Be sure to mark his transient beam, 
Which through the casement sheds a gleam ; 
For 'tis a token bright and clear, 
Of prosperous weather all the year. 



i> 



On St. Vincent's day the vine-sap rises to the 
branch, but retires frightened if it find frost. 

French. . 

25/A (St. Paul's day.) 

If Saint Paul's day be faire and cleare, 

It doth betide a happy yeare, 

But if by chance it then should rain, 

It will make deare all kinds of graine ; 

And if ye clouds make dark ye skie, 

Then neate and fowles this yeare shall die ; 

If blustering winds do blow aloft, 

Then wars shall trouble ye realm full oft. 

&c, &c. 

„ If St. Paul's day be fine, the year will be the same. 

French. 

„ This festival was called an Egyptian day ; because 
(says Ducangej the Egyptians discovered that 
there were two unlucky days in every month, 
and prognostications of the good or bad course 
of the year were formed from the state of the 
weather on these days. 

„ If St. Paul's day be fair and clear, it indicates plenty ; 

if cloudy or misty, much cattle will die ; if rain 

or snow fall that day, it presages a dearth ; if 

windy, it forebodes wars, as old wives do dream. 

Nature's Secrets — Wilh/ord. 



WEATHER WISDOM. 21 

Times and Seasons. 

January. 

25//* If the sun shine on St. Paul's day, it betokens a good 
year ; if rain or snow, indifferent ; if misty, it 
predicts great dearth ; if thunder, great winds 
and death of People that year. 

Shepherd's Almanack, 1676. 

„ & Feb. January or February 

Do fill or empty the granary. French. 

„ & Mar. March in Janiveer, 

Janiveer in March I fear. 

„ & May January commits the fault and May bears the blame. 

Note. — This is intended to apply not only to the 
seasons but to human affairs. 

February Februeer 
{cold) Doth cut and shear. 

„ February fill dyke, be it black or be it white, 

But if it be white it's the better to like. 

(fair) All the months in the year, 
Curse a fair Februeer. 



i-> 



?5 



The Welshman had rather see his dam on the bier, 
Than to see a fair Februeer. 

When gnats dance in February the husbandmen 
becomes a beggar. 



(snoiv) If February give much snow, 

A fine summer it doth foreshow. 

From the French. 

(dry) If February is dry there is neither good corn nor 
good hay. 

Portuguese. 

(rain) February rain is only good to fill ditches. 

French. 



22 WEATHER WISDOM. 

Times and Seasons. 

February 

2nd Candlemas Day. — Purification of the Virg-in Mary — 
The snowdrop, which was appropriately called 
" The fair maid of February," ought to blossom 
about this time. 

„ The hind had as lief see his wife on the bier, 

As that Candlemas day should be pleasant and clear. 

Candlemas brings great pains. ■ French. 

At the day of Candlemas, 

Cold in air and snow on grass, 

If the sun then entice the bear from his den, 

He turns round thrice and o-ets back asfain. 

From the French. 

„ The badger peeps out of his hole on Candlemas 
day, and when he finds snow walks abroad, 
but if he sees the sun shining he draws back 
into his hole. German. 

„ As long as the bird sings before Candlemas it will 
greet after it. Scotch. 

„ On the eve of Candlemas day, 

Winter gets stronger or passes away. 

From the French. 

„ At Candlemas day, 

Another winter is on his way. From the French. 

„ When Candlemas day is come and gone, 
The snow lies on a hot stone. 

„ The shepherd would rather see the wolf enter his 
fold on Candlemas day than the sun. 



:i 



If Candlemas day be dry and fair, 
The half of the winter is gone and mair. 
If Candlemas day be wet and foul, 
The half of the winter is gone at Yule (Christmas). 

Scotch. 



WEATHER WISDOM. 23 



Times and Seasons. 



February 

2nd Should the sun shine out at the Purification Cor 
churching- of the Virgin Mary) there will be 
more ice after the festival than there was before 
it. From the Latin proverb — Sir T. Browne's 
" Vulgar Errors." 

„ When on the Purification the sun hath shined, 
The greater part of winter comes behind. 

„ If Candlemas day be fine and clear, 
Corn and fruits will then be dear. 

,. If Candlemas day be fair and bright, 
Winter will have another flight. 
But if Candlemas day bring clouds and rain, 
Winter is gone and won't come again. 

„ After Candlemas day the frost will be more keen, 
If the sun then shines bright, than before it has been. 

„ On Candlemas day, if the thorns hang a drop,* 
Then you are sure of a good pea crop. 

„ When the wind's in the east on Candlemas day, 
There it will stick till the second of May. 

„ On Candlemas day, 

You must have half your straw and half your day. 
(That is to say, winter is not more than half 
passed.) 

„ Sow or set beans in Candlemas waddle.f 

12th (St. Eulalie's day.) 

If the sun smile on St. Eulalie's day, 
It is good for apples and cider they say. 

From the French. 

\i s th (St. Valentine.) 

To St. Valentine the spring is a neighbour. French. 

* With icices. t Wane of the moon. 



2 4 



WEATHER WISDOM. 



Times and Seasons. 



February 
\\th 



toth to 28th 



24th 



March 

Frosts 
Mists 

{dry) 

J5 
5? 

{Sun) 



The crocus was dedicated to St. Valentine, and ought 
to blossom about this time. 

Circle 0/ the Seasons. 

St. Valentine, 

Set thy hopper* by mine. 

The nights of this part of February are called in 
Sweden " Steel nights," on account of their 
cutting severity. 

(St. Matthew.) 

St. Matthew breaks the ice, if he finds none he will 

make it. 
St. Matthy 
All the year goes by. 

At St. Mattho, 

Take thy hopper* and sow. 

St. Matthie, 

Sends sap into the tree . 

March many weathers. 

So many frosts in March, so many in May. 

So many mists in March you see, 
So many frosts in May will be. 

A dry and cold March never begs its bread. 

A peck of March dust is worth a king's ransom. 

A bushel of March dust is a thing 
Worth the ransom of a king-. 

A March without water 

Dowers the hind's daughter. From the French. 

A March sun sticks like a lock of wool. 

* Seed basket. 



WEATHER WISDOM. 25 

Times and Seasons. 

March 

(Sun) Worse than the sun in March, 
This praise doth nourish agues. 

Shakespere, Henry IV., Part I, Act 4, Scene I. 

(Rain) A wet March makes a sad harvest. 

„ March rain spoils more than clothes. 

., March water is worse than a stain in cloth. 



(fishing) A March wisher 

Is never a good fisher. 

Thunder When it thunders in March it brings sorrow. 



j) 



» 



When March thunders, tools and arms get rusty. 

Portuguese. 

When it thunders in March we may cry alas ! 

French. 



(mild) March flowers 

Make no summer bowers. 

„ March grass never did g-ood. 

„ When gnats dance in March it brings death to sheep. 

Dutch. 

(winds) March comes in like a lion and goes out like a 
lamb. 

„ March, black ram,* 

Comes in like a lion and goes out like a lamb. 

„ March comes in with Adder's heads and goes out 

with Peacock's tails. Scotch. 

Pruning He who freely lops in March, will get his lap full of 
fruit. Portuguese. 

Humours As Mars hasteneth all the humours feel it. 

* Aries. 



26 WEATHER WISDOM. 

Times and Seasons. 

March 
and April When March is like April, April will be like March. 

French, 
„ March winds and April showers, 

Bring - forth May flowers. 

„ April & A windy March and a rainy April, make a beautiful 
May May. 

„ fy May Mists in March bring- rain, 
Or in May, frosts again. 



» 



^ 



March wind and May sun, 

Make clothes white and maids dun. 

A peck of March dust and a shower in May, 
Make the corn green and the fields gay. 



is/ (St. David's.) 

Upon St. David's day, 

Put oats and barley in the clay. 

is/ §• 2nd St. David and Chad, 

Sow pease good or bad. 

is/, 2nd, First comes David, then comes Chad, 
$• yd And then comes Winneral as though he was mad. 
White or black, 
Or old house thack. 

No/e. — Meaning snow, rain, or wind — the latter 
endangering the thack or thatch. 
2\s/ (St. Benedict.) 
St. Benedick, 
Sow thy pease or keep them in thy rick. 

When there has been no particular storm about the 
time of the spring equinox, if a storm arise from 
the east on or before that day, or if a storm 
from any point of the compass arise near a 
week after the equinox, then, in either of these 
cases, the succeeding summer is generally dry, 
four times in five ; but if a storm arise from the 
S.W. or W.S.W. on or just before the spring 
equinox, then the summer following is generally 
wet, five times in six. Dr. Kirwan. 



WEATHER WISDOM. 27 



Times and Seasons. 



March 

25//Z (Lady day.) 

The flower cardamine, or lady's smock, with its milk- 
white flowers, is dedicated to the Virgin Mary, 
and appears about Lady day. 

3 last days March borrowit from April 

Three days and they were ill, 

The first was frost, the second was snaw, 

The third was cauld as ever't could blaw. Scotch. 

„ March borrows of April 

Three days and they are ill ; 
April borrows of March again 
Three days of wind and rain. 

„ The warst blast comes in the borrowing days. 

Note by Sir Walter Scott, "Heart of Mid Lothian." 
" The three last days of March (old style) are called 
the borrowing days, for as they are remarked 
to be unusually stormy, it is feigned that March 
had borrowed them from April to extend the 
sphere of his rougher sway." 

Easter If the sun shines on Easter day, it shines on Whit- 
sunday likewise, 

„ A rainy Easter betokens a good harvest. French. 

April A cold April 
{cold) The barn will fill. 

„ Cold April gives bread and wine. French. 

„ A Cold April brings wine and bread in plenty. 

Portuguese. 

„ A cold and moist April fills the cellar and fattens 

the cow. Portuguese. 



j? 



« 



A cold April, much bread and little wine. 

Spanish. 

It is not April without a frosty crown. French. 



28 WEATHER WISDOM. 

Times and Seasons. 

— 1 

April 

(cold) April wears a white hat.* 

„ (cloudy) Cloudy April, dewy May. French. 

„ (ram) April rain is worth David's chariot. French. 

„ (rain) In April, Dove'sf flood 
Is worth a king's good. 

„ Change Changeable as an April day. 

„ Buds Vine that buds in April, 

Will not the barrel fill. From the French. 

„ Thunder When April blows his horn, 
It's good for hay and corn. 

„ If it thunders on all fool's day 

It brings good crops of corn and hay. 

(Early part The early part of April is called the blackthorn 
of) winter, because the thorn is then white with 

blossom and the weather generally cold. 

{First $ days) K the first three days of April be foggy, there will 
be a flood in June. Huntingdon. 

„ \\th This day is called Cuckoo day, and the cuckoo's 
song is generally first heard about this time. 

„ i $th This day is called Swallow day, because swallows 
ought to appear at this date. 

„ 6° May Betwixt April and May if there be rain, 
T'is worth more than oxen and wain. 

„ April and May are the keys of the year. 

„ April rains for men, May for beasts. 

i.e. — A rainy April is good for corn, and a wet 
May for grass crops. 

* Frost. + The river Dove in Derbyshire. 



WEATHER WISDOM. 29 

Times and Seasons. 

April 

# May April showers bring forth May flowers. 

May 
(merry) The merry month of May. 

(rainy) Rainy May marries peasants. French. 

„ Water in May is bread all the year. 

Spain and Italy. 

A wet May 

Will fill a byre full of hay. 



)> 



„ May showers bring- milk and meal. Scotch 

Flood A May flood 

Never did good. 

Cold Till May be out 

Leave not off a clout. 



jj 



May ; come she early or come she late, 

She'll make the cow to quake. French. 

„ Cold May enriches no one. 

„ Shear your sheep in May, 
And shear them all away. 

„ A cold May and a windy, 

Makes a barn full and a findy. 

(windy) A windy May makes a fair year. Portuguese. 

(hot) A hot May makes a fat churchyard. 

Mowing He who mows in May, 

Will have neither fruit nor hay. Portuguese. 

In May an east lying field is worth wain and oxen, 
in June the oxen and the yoke. 

Beans Be it weal or be it woe, 

Beans blow before May doth go. . 



•>•> 



>> 



30 WEATHER WISDOM. 

Times and Seasons. 

May 

6° June Look at your corn in May 

And you will come weeping- away ; 

Look at the same in June 

And you'll come home in another tune. 

Mist in May, heat in June, 

Make the harvest come right soon. 

A dry May and a dripping June, 

Bring all things into tune. Bedfordshire. 

Mist in May and heat in June, 
Make a harvest come right soon. 

„ A leaking May and a warm June 

Bring- on the harvest very soon. Scotch. 

„ A leaky May and a dry June, 

Keep the poor man's head abune.* Greenock. 

June (calm) Calm weather in June 
Sets corn in tune. 

„ 8//z If on the eighth of June it rain, 

It fortells a wet harvest men sain. 

8/h &> 19th If it rain on June 8th (St. Medard) it will rain forty 
days later, but if it rain on June 19th, (St. 
Protais) it rains for forty days after. French. 

1 $th If St. Vitus's Day be rainy weather, 
It will rain for thirty days together. 

July July God send thee calm and fayre, 

That happy harvest we may see, 
With quyet tyme and healthsome ayre, 
And man to God may thankful bee. 

„ Calm No tempest good July, 

Lest corn come off blue by (mildew). 

Rain A shower of rain in July, when the corn begins to fill, 
Is worth a plough of oxen, and all belongs theretill. 

* Above. 



J5 



July 



WEATHER WISDOM. 31 

Times and Seasons. 



1st If the first of July it be rainy weather, 

It will rain more or less for four weeks together. 

4//z If Bullion's day be dry there will be a good harvest. 

Scotch. 



„ Bullion's day gif ye be fair, 

For forty days there'll be nae mair. 

1 $th If St. Swithin greets, the proverb says, 
The weather will be foul for forty days. 



Scotch. 



Scotch. 



„ In this month is St. Swithin's day, 
On which if that it rain they say, 
Full forty days after it will, 
Or more or less some rain distil. 

Poor Robin's Almanack, 1697. 

„ St. Swithin's day if thou dost rain, 
For forty days it will remain ; 
St. Swithin's day if thou be fair, 
For forty days 'twill rain nae mair. Scotch. 

„ St. Swithin is christening the apples. 

This saying is applied to rain on St. Swithin's day. 

„ If it rain on the feast of St. Processus and St. Martin 
it suffocates the corn. Latin Proverb. 

„ zznd Mary Magdalene's day. The roses are said to 
begin to fade on this day. 

„ 25/// Till St. James' day be come and gone, 

You may have hops and you may have none. 

August Dry August and warm, 
{dry) Doth harvest no harm. 

{wet) A wet August never brings dearth. Italian. 

„ August rain gives honey, wine, and saffron. 

Portuguese. 



>> 



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5> 



32 WEATHER WISDOM. 

Times and Seasons. 

August 

(wet) When it rains in August it rains honey and wine. 

French and Spanish. 
\st The first day of August, the first day of harvest. 

Portuguese. 

„ Lammas day. After Lammas, corn ripens as much 
by night as by day. 
Note. — Alluding to the heavy night dews. 

24/A St. Bartholomew. If it rains this day it will rain the 
forty days after. Roman. 

At St. Bartholomew, 
There comes cold dew. 

All the tears that St. Swithin can cry, 
St. Bartlemy's mantle wipes them dry. 

If the twenty-fourth of August be fair and clear, 
Then hope for a prosperous autumn that year. 

„ &> Sept. August ripens, September gathers in, 

August bears the burden, September the fruit. 

Portuguese. 

„ &> Dec. None in August should over the land, 
In December none over the sea. 

September September dries up wells or breaks down bridges. 
(dry or wet) Portuguese. 

„ Preserve your fodder in September and your cow 
will fatten. Portuguese. 

1 jgih (Holy rood.) The passion flower blossomed about 
this time ; the flower is said to present a resem- 
blance to the cross or rood, the nails, and the 
crown of thorns used at the crucifixion. 

Circle 0/ the Seasons. 
„ If dry be the buck's horn 
On Holyrood morn, 

Tis worth a kist of gold, 
But if wet it be seen, 
E'er Holyrood e'en, 

Bad harvest is foretold. Yorkshire. 






WEATHER WISDOM. 33 



Times and Seasons. 



September 

1 jfih If the heart and the hind meet dry and part dry on 
Rood-day fair, 
For sax weeks of rain there'll be nae mair. 

Scotch. 

list Saint Matthee, 
Shut up the bee. 

„ Saint Matthew 

Brings on the cold dew. 

29th (Michaelmas day.) 
Michaelmas rot, 
Comes ne'er in the pot. 

„ St. Michael's rain does not stay long- in the sky. 

French. 

&> Novem- September blow soft till the fruits in the loft. 
her November take flail, let ships no more sail. 

October If in the fall of the leaves in October many of them 
wither on the boughs and hang there, it betokens 
a frosty winter and much snow. 



» 



A good October and a good blast, 
To blow the hog acorn and mast. 



„ In October dung your field, 

And your land its wealth shall yield. 

November 

„ wth (St. Martin.) 

At St. Martin's day 

Winter is on his way. French. 

„ If the wind is in the south-west at Martinmas, it 

keeps there till after Candlemas. 

Midland Counties. 



:> 



Expect St. Martin's Summer. — Shakespere, Hen. VI., 
pt. 1, Act 1, scene 2. i.e. } fine weather at 
Martinmas. 

December 
Thunder Thunder in December presages fine weather. 



34 WEATHER WISDOM. 

Times and Seasons. 

December 

21st (St. Thomas.) 

Look at the weathercock on St. Thomas's day at 
12 o'clock, and see which way the wind is, for 
there it will stick for the next (lunar) quarter. 

25/A A green Christmas makes a fat churchyard. 

„ If the sun shine through the apple tree on Christmas 

day, there will be an abundant crop in the fol- 
lowing year. 

„ Light Christmas,* light wheatsheaf; 

Dark Christmas, heavy wheatsheaf. 

„ If it rain much during the twelve days after Christ- 

mas day it will be a wet year. 

„ If Christmas day on Thursday be, 

A windy winter ye shall see ; 
Windy weather in each week, 
And hard tempest strong and thick, 
The summer shall be good and dry, 
Corn and beasts shall multiply ; 
The year is good for lands to till, 
Kings and princes shall die by skill, &c, &c. 

There are eight more lines of the same super- 
stitious character but not relating to the weather. 

Christmas § A windy Christmas and a calm Candlemas are 
Candlemas signs of a good year. 

Christmas A warm Christmas, a cold Easter. 

$• Easter A green Christmas, a white Easter. German. 



Months January fierce, cold and frosty, 
character of February moist and aguish, 
March dusty, 
April rainy, 

May pretty, gay and windy, 
Bring an abundant harvest. French. 

* If full moon about Christmas day. 



WEATHER WISDOM. 35 

Times and Seasons. 

Months 

(character of) h frosty winter and a dusty March, 
And a rain about Aperill, 
And another about the lammas* time, 

When the corn begins to fill, 
Is worth a plough of gold 
And all her pins theretill. 

„ A cold January, a feverish February, a dusty 

March, a weeping April, and a windy May, 
Presage a good year and gay. French. 

„ A dusty March, a snowy February, a moist April, 

and a dry May, presage a good year. French. 

Cycle of Lord Bacon states that it is an old opinion that the 
chafige weather changes after forty years repeat them- 

selves. 
Note. — The closest observation in modern times 
has failed to fix any period after which the 
weather may be said to repeat its changes. 

Friday fy Fine on Friday, 
Sunday Fine on Sunday. 
Wet on Friday, 
Wet on Sunday. France. 



List of Common Plants, and the dates at which they ought to 
be in full flower. The forwardness of the seasons may be 
judged by the punctuality of the appearance of the blossoms. 
Jan. 



2 


Groundsel 




Feb 


I 


Bay 


4 


Hazel 




j) 


2 


Snowdrop 


5 


Bearsfoot 




» 


5 


Primrose 


6 


Common Dead Nettle 




)? 


6 


Blue Hyacinth 


9 


Laurel 




»> 


9 


Narcissus, Roman 


10 


Gorse 




)J 


*3 


Polyanthus 


11 


Early Moss 




>) 


14 


Yellow Crocus 


14 


Barren Strawberry 




)J 


17 


Scotch Crocus 


15 


Ivy 




55 


19 


Speedwell 


17 


Anemone (Garden) 




J) 


21 


White Crocus 


x 9 


White Dead Nettle 




)) 


22 


Common Daisy 


27 


Earth Moss 




55 


23 


Apricot 


28 


Double Daisy 




55 


25 


Peach 


30 


Maidenhair 




J) 


26 


Periwinkle (lesser) 








5J 


28 


Purple Crocus 






* Aug 1 


11st ISt. 







36 



WEATHER WISDOM. 



Times and Seasons. 


March I 


Leek 


June 


I 


Yellow Rose 


?) 


4 


Chickweed 


)? 


2 


Pimpernel 


33 


5 


Hellebore 


S) 


4 


Pink (Indian) 


5) 


6 


Lent Lily 


)> 


6 


Pink (common) 


33 


7 


Early Daffodil 


?> 


8 


Moneywort 


5) 


8 


Great Jonquil 


?) 


9 


Barberry 


33 


13 


Heartsease 


;? 


10 


Fleur de lis (Yellow) 


33 


15 


Coltsfoot 


j) 


12 


White Dog Rose 


33 


i7 


Shamrock 


)) 


13 


Ranunculus (garden) 


59 


i7 


Violet 


)> 


15 


Sensitive Plant 


99 


24 


Saxifrage 


)> 


16 


Moss Rose 


59 


25 


Marigold 


)? 


18 


Poppy (honied) 


39 


29 


Oxlip 


)» 


22 


Canterbury Bell 


39 


30 


Cardamine 


55 


23 


Lady's Slipper 


99 


30 


Lesser Daffodil 


?5 


24 


St. John's Wort 








JJ 


25 


Sweet William 








)) 


26 


Sowthistle (Blue) 


April 2 


White Violet 


S) 


28 


Cornflower 


33 


4 


Crown Imperial 








33 


7 


Anemone, Wood 








33 


8 


Ground Ivy 


July 


1 


Agrimony 


39 


9 


Polyanthus (Red) 


?j 


2 


White Lily 


J) 


11 


Dandelion 


j? 


7 


Nasturtium 


39 


12 


Saxifrage (Great) 


5J 


11 


Yellow Lupin 


39 


13 


Narcissus (Green) 


JJ 


12 


Snap Dragon 


99 


16 


Yellow Tulip 


)) 


13 


Blue Lupin 


99 


19 


Garlic 


5) 


H 


Red Lupin 


33 


23 


Harebell 


)> 


16 


Convolvolus Major 


J) 


24 


Black Thorn 


5> 


17 


Sweet Pea 


5) 


27 


Great Daffodil 


?» 


23 


Musk Flower 


39 


30 


Cowslip 


)» 


25 


Herb Christopher 








7) 


2$ 


Camomile (field) 


May 


2 


Charlock 








a; 


2 


Rhododendron 


Aug 


2 


Tiger Lily 


53 





Narcissus (Poetic) 


33 


3 


Hollyhock 


99 


5 


Apple Tree 


33 


4 


Blue Bell 


3) 


8 


Lily of the Valley 


39 


6 


Meadow Saffron 


33 


9 


Solomon's Seal 


33 


7 


Amaranth (common) 


33 


11 


Asphodel (Yellow) 


33 


8 


Love lies Bleeding 


33 


14 


Common Peony 


33 


10 


Balsaam (common) 


33 


16 


Star of Bethlehem 


33 


11 


China Aster 


33 


17 


Poppy (Early Red) 


>3 


12 


Sow Thistle (great) 


33 


18 


Mouse Ear 


33 


18 


African Marygold 


33 


19 


Monkshood 


33 


21 


Sunflower 


33 


20 


Horse Chesnut 


33 


28 


Golden Rod 


33 


23 


Lilac 


5) 


29 


Yellow Hollyhock 


99 


26 


Azelia (Yellow) 


39 


3i 


Pheasant's Eye 


33 


27 


Buttercup 









WEATHER WISDOM. 



37 



Times and Seasons. 


Sept. 


5 


Mushroom 


Nov. 1 


Laurastinum 


)» 


IO 


Autumnal Crocus 


„ 6 


Yew 


>) 


14 


Passion Flower 


» 25 


Butterbur (sweet) 


Oct. 


2 


Common Soapwort 






)> 


4 


Southernwood 


Dec. 4 


Gooseberry (Barbadoes) 


99 


5 


Camomile (Starlike) 


7 


Achania (hairy) 


?) 


6 


Fever Few (late flowering) 


„ 8 


Arbor Vitse 


» 


7 


Chrysanthemum (Indian) 


» 23 


Cedar of Lebanon 


99 


ii 


Holly 


„ 26 


Purple Heath 


)) 


16 


Yarrow 






>» 


i7 


Sunflower (ten leaved) 


Hone's Everyday Book. 



List of Common Flowers, and the times at which, in ordinary fine 
weather, they open and close their petals. Their opening- 
later or closing- earlier than the usual time is a sign of rain, 
and vice versa. 



Goatsbeard 

Succory 

Ox Tongue 
Naked Poppy ... 

Day Lily 

Sow Thistle 
Blue Thistle 
Dandelion 
Convolvolus 
Spotted Hawkweed 

Lettuce 

White Water Lily 
African Marigold 
Pimpernel 
Prolifers, Pink ... 
Mouse Ear 
Field Marigold 
Chickweed 
Caroline Mallow 



OPENS. 


CLOSES. 


A.M 




P.M 




3 to 


5 


9 


to 


IO 


4 » 


5 


8 


99 


9 


4 » 


5 


. 12 






5 




7 






5 




7 


j) 


8 


5 




11 


>» 


12 


5 




. 12 






5 » 


6 '.'.'. '.'. 


8 


3? 


9 


5 » 


6 


. 4 


?5 


5 


6 „ 


7 


4 


91 


5 


7 




10 






7 




5 






7 




3 


9> 


4 


7 „ 


. 8 !" " 


2 


)> 


3 


8 




. 6 






8 




2 






9 




3 






9 » 


10 


9 


» 


10 


9 .. 


10 


. 12 


» 


1 



38 WEATHER WISDOM. 



SUN AND MOON. 



The indications of coming- weather presented by the sun, 
moon, &c, come next in order, and they refer for the most part 
to the weather of the day or very soon after. The sun has ever 
been the first authority, and has his various aspects, colours, and 
moods, each fitted with a real or imaginary sequence of weather. 
His redness on rising- or setting has furnished the material for a 
dozen proverbs of various times and nations. The moon too has 
always had her votaries, as a weather-witch, and even now is not 
without a numerous staff of prophets ready to assert her influence 
over the rain and clouds. One frequently hears of the weather 
altering at the " change of the moon," but careful observers have 
been unable to detect any real differences in the state of the air 
at such times. A more extended observation however will do 
the subject no harm, and may lead to the discovery of a law, or 
the establishment of some rule on which reliance can be placed. 
The appearance of a halo round the moon is regarded as an in- 
dication of wet weather, and from its relative position gives some 
warning as to the time when the coming change may be expected. 

Sunrise Above the rest, the sun who never lies, 

Foretells the change of weather in the skies, 
For if he rise unwilling to his race, 
Clouds on his brow and spots upon his face ; 
Or if through mists he shoot his sullen beams, 
Frugal of light in loose and straggling streams, 
Suspect a drizzling day and southern rain, 
Fatal to fruits, and flocks, and promised grain. 

Virgil Georgic, i, 438. 



WEATHER WISDOM. 39 

Sun and Moon. 

Sunrise 

{grey) A grey sky in the morning- presages fine weather. 

Fitzroy. 

clear, &>c. A high dawn indicates wind. 

A low dawn indicates fair weather. 

Note. — A high dawn is when the first indications of 
daylight are seen over a bank of clouds ; a low 
dawn is when the day breaks on or near the 
horizon, the first streaks of light being very low 
down. Fitzroy. 

„ If at sunrising the clouds are driven away and retire 

as it were to the west, this denotes fair weather. 

Pliny. 

„ (cloudy) If the sky at sunrise is cloudy and the clouds soon 
disperse, certain fine weather will follow. 

Shepherd of Banbury. 

„ (gloomy) If aurora with half open eyes, 

And a pale sickly cheek salutes the skies, 
How shall the vine with tender leaves defend 
Her teeming clusters when the storms descend ? 

Virgil. 

„ (misty) A general "mist before the sun rises near the full 
moon, presages fair weather. 

Shepherd cf Banlury. 

„ (halo) If the rising sun be encompassed with an iris or 
circle of white clouds and they equally fly away, 
this is a sign of fair weather. Pliny. 

„ (red) A red morn, that ever yet betokened 

Wreck to the seaman, tempest to the field, 
Sorrow to shepherds, woe unto the birds, 
Gust and foul flaws to herdmen and to herds. 

Shakespere. 

,) If red the sun begin his race, 
Be sure the rain will fall apace. 

Noon The weather usually clears at noon when a southerly 
wind is blowing. Nautical. 



» 



4 o WEATHER WISDOM. 

Sun and Moon. 

Noon 

change If a change of weather occur when the sun or moon 
is crossing the meridian, it is for twelve hours at 
least. Nautical. 

Sunset But more than all the setting sun survey, 

When down the steep of heaven he drives the day ; 

For oft we find him finishing his race, 

With various colours erring on his face. 

If fiery red his glowing globe descends, 

High winds and furious tempests he portends ; 

But if his cheeks are swoln with livid blue, 

He bodes wet weather by his watery hue ; 

If dusky spots are varied on his brow, 

And streaked with red a troubled colour show, 

That sullen mixture shall at once declare 

Winds, rain, and storms, and elemental war. 
******* 

But if with purple rays he brings the light, 
And a pure heaven resigns to quiet night, 
No rising winds or falling storms are nigh. 

Vireil. 



'8' 



>y 



breeze A breeze usually springs up before sunset, or, if a 
gale is blowing, it generally subsides about that 
time. 

„ bright When the sun sets bright and clear, 
An easterly wind you need not fear. 

„ golden The weary sun hath made a golden set, 
And by the bright track of his fiery car, 
Gives token of a goodly day to-morrow. 

Shakesperc, Richard III. 

„ yellow A bright yellow sky at sunset presages wind. 

A pale yellow, wet. Fitzroy. 

„ hazy When the air is hazy, so that the solar light fades 
gradually, and looks white, rain will most cer- 
tainly follow. 

„ pale If the sun goes pale to bed, 

'Twill rain to-morrow, it is said. 



WEATHER WISDOM. 41 

Sun and Moon. 



Sunset 

pale When the sun appears of a light pale colour, or goes 
down into a bank of clouds, it indicates the ap- 
proach or continuance of bad weather. 

„ cloudy When the sun sets in a bank, 

A westerly wind we shall not lack. 

„ wet The sun sets weeping in the lowly west, 

Witnessing storms to come, woe and unrest. 

Shakespere, Richard II. 

Sunrise and When it is evening, ye say it will be fair weather, 
Sunset for the sky is red ; and in the morning, it will 

be foul weather to-day, for the sky is red and 
lowring. Matthew XVI, ver. 2 6° 3. 

„ Evening grey and morning red, 

Make the shepherd hang his head. 

„ Evening red and morning grey, 
Two sure signs of one fine day. 

„ Sky red in the morning 

Is a sailor's sure warning, 

Sky red at night 

Is the sailor's delight. 

„ A red evening and a grey morning set the pilgrim 
a-walking. Italy. 

„ An evening red and morning grey make the pilgrim 
sing. France. 

„ Evening red and morning grey, 
Help the traveller on his way ; 
Evening grey and morning red, 
Bring down rain upon his head. 

„ The evening red and the morning grey, 
Is the sign of a bright and cheery day ; 
The evening grey and the morning red, 
Put on your hat or you'll wet your head. 

Scotland. 



42 WEATHER WISDOM. 

Sun and Moon. 

Sunset 

Sunrise and If the sun on rising or setting- cast a lurid red light 
Sunset on the sky as far as the zenith, it is a sure 

sign of storms and gales of wind. 

Night If the weather change at night, it will not last when 

the day breaks. France. 

Sun, red A red sun has water in his eye. 

„ beams When solar rays are visible in the air, they indicate 
vapour and rain to follow. 

„ mock Mock suns predict a more or less certain change of 
weather. Scotland. 

Moon, new In winter when the moon's horns are sharp and well 
defined, frost is expected. Scotland. 

„ A new moon with sharp horns threatens windy 

weather. 

„ People speak of the new moon lying on her back or 

being ill-made, as a prognostic of wet weather. 

„ When first the moon appears, if then she shrouds 

Her silver crescent tipped with sable clouds, 
Conclude she bodes a tempest on the main, 
And brews for fields impetuous floods of rain ; 
Or if her face with fiery flushings glow, 
Expect the rattling winds aloft to blow ; 
But four nights old (for that's the surest sign) 
With sharpened horns, if glorious then she shine, 
Next day nor only that but all the moon, 
Till her revolving race be wholly run, 
Are void of tempests both by land and sea. 

Virgil, 
(misty) If mists in the new moon rain in the old. 
If mists in the old moon rain in the new. 

Shepherd of Banbury. 
Moon i?i An old moon in a mist, 

mist Is worth gold in a kist. (chest) 
But a new moon's mist 
Will never lack thirst. 



WEATHER WISDOM. 43 

Sun and Moon. 

Moon 

{change From the first, second, and third days of the new 

of) moon nothing- is to be predicted, on the fourth 

there is some indication, but from the character 

of the fifth and sixth days the weather of the 

whole month may be predicted. 

Marshall Bur gaud's motto. 

„ As is the fourth and fifth day's weather, 

So's that Lunation altogether. From the Latin. 

„ If the moon change on a Sunday there will be a flood 

before the month is out. Worcestershire. 

„ A Saturday moon, 

If it comes once in seven years comes once too soon, 

„ Saturday's moon and Sunday's prime 

Ance is aneugh in seven years time. Scotland. 



» 



Saturday's change and Sunday's full 

Never brought good and never wull. Norfolk. 



„ A Saturday's change and a Sunday's full moon, 

Once in seven years is once too soon. 

„ A few days after full or new moon, changes of weather 

are thought more probable than at any other 
time. Scotland. 

waning In the decay of the moon 

A cloudy morning bodes a fair afternoon. 

halo Far burr, near rain. Nautical. 

Note. — The further the "burr" or halo appears 
from the moon, the nearer at hand is the coming 
rain. 



» 



Circle* near, water far. 

Circle far, water near. Italy. 

The moon with a circle brings water in her beak. 

* Halo round moon. 



44 WEATHER WISDOM. 



Sun and Moon. 



Moon 
Moon halo When round the moon there is a bruo-h,* 

The weather will be cold and rough.* Scotland. 

„ The circle of the moon never filled a pond. 

The circle of the sun wets a shepherd. 

,, For I fear a hurricane, 

Last night the moon had a golden rim, 
And to-night no moon I see. 

Longfellow, Wreck of the Hcspems. 

„ Haloes predict a storm (rain and wind or snow and 

wind) at no great distance, and the open side of 
the halo tells the quarter from which it may- 
be expected. Scotland. 

(dark part Late, late yestreen I saw the new moon 
visible) With the old moon in her arms, 

And I fear, I fear, my master dear, 
We shall have a deadly storm. 

Ballad of Sir Patrick Spenser. 

„ To see the old moon in the arms of the new one is a 

sign of bad weather to come. 

{ruddy) If on her cheeks you see the maiden's blush, 

The ruddy moon foreshows that winds will rush. 

Virgil. 

(watery) The moon, methinks, looks with a watery eye. 

Shakespere, Midsununer Night' 's Dream. 

„ Therefore the moon, the governess of floods, 

Pale in her anger, washes all the air, 
That rheumatic diseases do abound. 

Shakespere, Midsummer Night's Dream. 



*Halo. 



WEATHER WISDOM. 45 

Sun and Moon. 

Moon 

{fall) The full moon eats Clouds. • Nautical. 

„ The full moon grows fat on clouds. 

luckua, Indian Proverb. 

Note. — The two last proverbs have arisen from a 
supposed clearance of clouds which is said to 
take place when the full moon rises. Close 
observation has, however, proved this to be an 
illusion. 

Moon, full Two full moons in a calendar month bring- on a flood. 

Bedfordshire. 

(clear) If the moon show a silver shield, 
Be not afraid to reap your field ; 
But if she rises haloed round, 
Soon we'll tread on deluged ground. 



}> 



Clear moon, 

Frost soon. Scotland. 



(dim) When the moon has a white look, or when her out- 
line is not very clear, rain or snow is looked for. 

Scotland. 



4 6 WEATHER WISDOM. 



WIND. 

A mass of weather wisdom has accumulated respecting- the 
wind. It is generally more of a descriptive than of a prophetic 
character, but will serve to indicate to the acute observer of 
nature, the kind of weather to expect when ever so small a 
change takes place in the direction or force of the wind. 

Wind — 
governing Every wind has its weather. 
weather Lord Bacon. 

„ No weather is ill, 
If the wind be still. 

{strong) Strong winds are more uniform and regular than 
light breezes. Fitzroy. 

{day and The winds of the day time wrestle and fight 
night) Longer and stronger than those of the night. 

{ripple of) There is a peculiar rippling of the wind, or broken 
way of blowing, which is said always to prog- 
nosticate heavy rain within a few hours. 

Scotland. 

and rain For raging winds blow up incessant showers, 
And when the rage allays, the rain begins. 

Shakespere, Henry VI. 

„ When rain comes before wind, 

Halyards sheets and braces mind. 

But— 
When wind comes before rain, 
Soon you may make sail again. Fitzroy. 



» 



WEATHER WISDOM. 47 

Wind. 

Wind 

# rain When the rain comes before the winds, 
You may reef when it begins ; 
But when the wind comes before the rain, 
You may hoist your topsails up again. 

If the rain comes before the wind, 
Lower your topsails and take them in ; 
If the wind comes before the rain, 
Lower your topsails and hoist them again. 

Much wind brings rain. French. 

Therefore the winds have sucked up from the sea 
Contagious fogs, which, falling in the land, 
Have every pelting river made so proud, 
That they have overborne their continents. 

Shakespere, Midsummer Night's Dream. 

{direction of) When the wind is in the north, 

Hail comes forth. 
When the wind is in the west, 

Look for a wet blast. 
When the wind is in the soud, 

The weather will be gude. 
When the wind is in the east, 

Cold and snaw comes neist. Scotch. 



» 



55 



North winds send hail, south winds bring rain, 
East winds we bewail, west winds blow amain ; 
North-east is too cold, south-east not too warm ; 
North-west is too bold, south-west doth no harm. 

Tusser. 

Wind east or west 
Is a sign of a blast, 
Wind north or south 
Is a sign of a drought. 

North wind cold, 

East wind dry, 

South wind warm and often wet. 

West wind generally rainy. Lord Bacon. 



4 8 WEATHER WISDOM. 

Wind. 

Wind 

{direction of) The south wind always brings wet weather, 

The north wind wet and cold together ; 

The west wind always brings us rain, 

The east wind blows it back again ; 

If the sun in red should set, 

The next day surely will be wet ; 

If the sun should set in gray, 

The next will be a rainy day. 

Satire on the humid climate of the British Isles. 

(north, lad When the wind is in the north 
for fishers) The skilful fisher goes not forth. 

(fair) A northern air 

Brings weather fair. 

„ Fair weather cometh out of the north. 

Job xxxvii., v. 22. 

„ The gold (of the sky) cometh out of the north. 

TJie same, Sharpens translation. 

'{cold) And cold out of the north. Job xxxvii., v. 39. 

„ To run upon the sharp wind of the north 

To do me business in the veins o' the earth 
When it is backed with frost. Shakespere, Tempest. 

(rainy) The north wind bringeth forth rain. 

Proverbs xxv., v. 23, Sharpens translation. 

(whirl-wind) A whirlwind came out of the north. 

Ezekiel, chap. i.,v. 4. 

(north tvest) Do business with men when the wind is in the north- 
west. Yorkshire. 
Note. — This bringing the finest weather, is said to 
improve men's tempers. 

„ An honest man and a north-west wind generally go 

to sleep together. 
Note. — The north-west wind usually abates about 
sunset. 



WEATHER WISDOM. 4 9 

Wind. 



}> 



Wind 

North-west If two currents of wind, as shown by the motions of 

and south- the clouds, blow north-west and south-east re- 

east spectively, and the south-east current be highest, 

foul weather will follow ; but if the north-west 

current be uppermost, then fair clear weather 

may be expected. 

East When the wind is in the east 

It is neither good for man nor beast. 

(dry) The east wind dried up her fruit. 

Ezekiel, chap, xix., v. 12. 

Their faces shall sup up as the east wind. 

Habakkuk, chap. i., v. 9. 

An east wind shall come, the wind of the Lord shall 
come up from the wilderness, and his springs 
shall become dry, and his fountain shall be 
dried up. Hosea, chap. xiii., v. 15. 

When the east wind toucheth it, it shall wither. 

Ezekiel, chap. xvii. v. 10.. 

And behold seven thin ears and blasted with the east 
wind came up. Genesis xli., v. 6. 

The east wind brought the locusts. 

Exodus x.,v. 13. 

Easterly gales without rain during the spring equi- 
nox, foretel a dry summer. Scotland. 

„ (clear) Every thing looks large in the east wind. 

Scotland. 

Note. — There are many local sayings in Scotland 
referring to the unusually clear appearance of 
certain mountains during an east wind. It is 
said to indicate approaching rain. 

„ (cold) When the hoar frost is first accompanied by east 
wind, it indicates that the cold will continue a 
long time. 



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>> 



» 



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50 WEATHER WISDOM. 

Wind. 

Wind 

{with rain) When the rain is from the east, 

It is for four-and-twenty hours, at least. 

„ The heaviest rains begin with an easterly wind, which 

gradually veers round to south and west, or a 
little north-west, when the rain usually ceases. 

{stormy) God prepared a vehement east wind. 

Jonah, chap, iv., v. 8. 

„ The east wind hath broken thee in the midst of the 

seas. Ezekiel, chap, xxvii., v. 26. 



>} 



Thou breakest the ships of Tarshish with an east 
wind. Psalm xlviii., v. J. 



(Fast- There arose against it a tempestuous wind called 
north-east) Euroclydon. Acts xxvii., v. 1 4. 

„ A tempestuous wind called Euroclydon (or east- 

north-east). The same, Sharped translation. 

(and west) When the wind is in the east, 
The fisher likes it least. 
When the wind is in the west, 
The fisher likes it best. 

„ When the smoke goes west, 

Good weather is past. 
When the smoke goes east, 
Good weather comes neist. Scotch. 

(South, How thy garments are warm when He quieteth the 
warm) earth by the south wind. Job xxxvii., v. 1 7. 

(tern- As whirlwinds in the south. 
pestuous) Isaiah xxi., v. I. 



jj 



» 



And shall go with whirlwinds of the south. 

Zachariah ix., v. 14. 

Out of the south cometh the whirlwind. 

Job xxxvii., v. 9. 



WEATHER WISDOM. 5 1 



Wind. 



Wind 

{hot) When ye see the south wind blow, ye say there will 
he heat, and it cometh to pass. 

Luke xii., z'- 55. 

(foggy) Like foggy south, puffing- with wind and rain. 

Shakespere, As You Like It, Act 4. 

(wet) When tempests of commotion like the south, 
Born with black vapour doth begin to melt 
And drop upon our bare unarmed heads. 

Shakespere, Henry IV. 



» 



)> 



» 



And with the southern clouds contend in tears. 

Shakespere, Henry VI. 

When the wind is in the south, 
It is in the rain's mouth. 

A southerly wind with showers of rain, 
Will bring the wind from west again. 



Good for When the wind is in the south. 
fishers It blows the bait in the fishes mouth. 

{fair) Fair weather for a week with a southern wind is 
likely to produce a great drought if there has 
been much rain out of the south before. 

Fitzroy. 

Whistling in The southern wind 

leaves Doth play the trumpet to his purposes, 

And by his hollow whistling in the leaves 
Fortells a tempest and a blustering day. 

Shakespere, Henry IV. 

South-east Rain with a south-east wind is expected to last for 
some time. Scotland. 

(South-west, A south-west blow on ye 

unwholesome) And blister ye all over. Shakespere, Tempest. 

South-west If after a stiff breeze there ensue a dead calm and 
gale drizzling rain, with a fall in the barometer, ex- 

pect a gale from south-west. 



52 WEATHER WISDOM. 

Wind. 

Wind 

{west) When the wind is in the west, 
The weather is always best. 

„ The west wind is a gentleman, and goes to bed. 

{i.e., drops in the evening.) 

Wet Wind west, 

Rains nest. Devonshire. 

„ A western wind carrieth water in his hand. 

Sudden And more inconstant than the wind, who woos 
changes Even now the frozen bosom of the north ; 

And being angered, puffs away from thence, 
Turning his face to the dew-dropping south. 

Shakespere, Romeo and Juliet. 

„ A frequent change of wind, with agitation in the 
clouds, denotes a storm. 

{veering) When the wind veers against the sun, 
Trust it not for back 'twill run. 

„ Permanent winds turn the vane only in a direct sense 
or with the sun. Dove. 

If wind follow sun's course expect fair weather. 

„ The veering of the wind with the sun, or, as sailors 
say, right handed, prognosticates drier or better 
weather, the backing of the wind against the sun, 
or left handed shifting, indicates rain, or more 
wind, or both together. Fitzroy. 

„ In northern hemisphere the wind changes from east 
to west by way of south, and the reverse (from 
east to west by way of north) in the southern 
hemisphere. Dove. 



WEATHER WISDOM. 53 

Wind. 

Wind 

Veering Cyclones in northern hemisphere veer generally 
Cyclones from east to west by way of north, or against 

the sun's course. In the southern hemisphere 
the reverse. 

(at sunset) If in unsettled weather the wind veers from south- 
west to west or north-west at sunset, expect 
finer weather for a day or two. Fitzroy. 

{north to If the wind veers from north to north-east in winter 
north-east) intense cold follows. Dove. 

(north to The wind usually turns from north to south, with a 

east) quiet wind without rain, but returns to the north 

with a strong wind and rain. The strongest 

winds are when it turns from south to north by 

west. Fitzroy. 

(north-east When the wind turns from north-east to east and 
to east) continues two days without rain, and does not 

turn south the third day, nor rain the third day, 
it is likely to continue north-east for eight or 
nine days, all fair, and then to come to the south 
again. Fitzroy. 

„ If the wind is north-east three days without rain, 
Eight days will pass before south wind again. 

Fitzroy. 

(south to If the wind shifts from south to north through west, 
north) there will be, in winter, snow, in spring, sleet, in 

summer, thunder storms, after which the air 
becomes colder. Dove. 

(changing) The wind goeth towards the south and turneth about 
to the north, it whirleth about continually, and 
the wind returneth again according to his 
circuits. Fcclesiastes, chap, i., v. 6. 



54 



WEATHER WISDOM. 



CLOUDS. 

Clouds next come under notice, and it will be seen that much 
is to be gleaned by observing their forms and appearances. 
By Fitzroy, Howard, and others, these masses of vapour have 
been marshalled in the order of their formation, so that the most 
casual observer may soon judge of the age of a cloud, whether 
seen in its first early stage of light feathery cirrus or in the form 
of a dark threatening nimbus, ripe for rain, and spreading like a 
vampire's wing over the landscape. 

Although the names given by Howard to the different clouds 
have been here adopted, and the same somewhat unnatural 
order maintained, yet the familiar names given to these masses 
of vapour by sailors and others, such as Mackerel sky, Mare's 
Tails, Wool Bags, Packet Boys, &c, have not been omitted. 
Clouds should of course be observed with a proper allowance 
for the force and direction of the wind at the time. With a 
swift upper current of air a clear sky sometimes becomes ob- 
scured in a few minutes, whilst in calmer weather changes in the 
appearance of the sky are slow to occur, and can be reckoned on 
with more safety. 

Clouds, in- After fine clear weather the first signs in the sky of a 
dications of coming change, are usually light streaks, curls, 

wisps, or mottled patches of white distant clouds, 
which increase and are followed by an overcast- 
ing of murky vapour that grows into cloudiness. 
The appearance more or less oily or watery as 
wind or rain may prevail, is an infallible sign. 
Usually the higher and more distant such clouds 
seem to be, the more gradual but general the 
coming change of weather will prove. Fitzroy. 



WEATHER WISDOM. 55 

Clouds. 

Clouds 

Balancing Can any understand the spreading^ of the clouds ? 

Job, chap, xxxvi., v. 29. 



j> 



Dost thou know the balancings of the clouds ? 

Job, chap, xxxvii., v. 16. 



Morning Cloudy mornings turn to clear evenings. 

Accumu- If the sky from being clear becomes fretted or 
lating spotted all over with bunches of clouds, rain 

will soon fall. Shepherd oj Banbury. 

Increasing If clouds increase visibly and the clear sky become 
less, it is a sign of rain. 

„ A small increasing white cloud about the sice of a 

hand to windward, is a sure precursor of a 
storm. 

Motions of High upper clouds crossing the sun, moon, or stars, 
in a direction different from that of the lower 
clouds, or the wind then felt below, fortell a 
change of wind toward their direction. 

Fitzroy. 

„ If two strata of clouds appear in hot weather to 

move in different directions, they indicate 
thunder. 

„ If, during dry weather, two layers of clouds appear 

moving in opposite directions, rain will follow. 

(red) Red clouds in the east, rain the next day. 

(rain) He causeth the vapours to ascend from the ends of 
the earth, He maketh lightnings for the rain, He 
bringeth the wind out of His treasuries. 

Psalm cxxxv., v. 7. 

„ Clouds above — water below. 

(storm) Generally squalls are preceded, or accompanied, or 
followed by clouds, but the dangerous white 
squall of the West Indies is indicated only by a 
rushing sound and by white wave crests to 
windward. Fitzroy. 



5 6 WEATHER WISDOM. 



Clouds. 



Clouds 

Storm A squall cloud that one can see through or under, is 
not likely to bring- or be accompanied by so 
much wind as a dark continued cloud extending 
beyond the horizon. Fitzroy. 

„ Behold there ariseth a little cloud out of the sea like 

a man's hand * * * 
Prepare thy chariot and get thee down that the 
rain stop thee not. And it came to pass that 
the heaven was black with clouds and wind, and 
there was a great rain. 

I Kings, chap, xviii., v. 44- — 45. 

„ A small fast-growing black cloud in violent motion seen 
in the tropics, is called the Bull's Eye, and pre- 
cedes the most terrible hurricanes. 

Description Sometimes we see a cloud that's dragonish, 
of A vapour sometimes like a bear or lion, 
A towered citadel, a pendant rock, 
A forked mountain, a blue promontory 
With trees upon't that nod unto the world 
And mock our eyes with air. 
That which is now a horse, even with a thought, 
The rack dislimns and makes it indistinct 
As water is in water. Shakespere. 

From west When ye see a cloud rise out of the west straitway 
ye say there cometh a shower, and so it is. 

Luke xii., 54. 

„ A bench (or bank) of clouds in the west indicates 

rain. Surrey. 

Against If you see a cloud rise against the wind or side wind, 
wind when that cloud comes up to you, the wind will 

blow the same way that the cloud came, and 
the same rule holds good of a clear place 
when all the sky is equally thick, except one 
clear edge. Shepherd of Banbury. 



WEATHER WISDOM. 



57 



Clouds. 



Clouds 
Colours of Light delicate quiet tints or colours with soft unde- 
fined forms of clouds, indicate and accompany- 
fine weather ; but unusual or gaudy hues with 
hard definitely outlined clouds, fortell rain and 
probably strong wind. Fitzroy. 

„ Dusky or tarnish silver-coloured clouds indicate hail. 

Howard. 

t 

Scud Small inky-looking clouds foretell rain, light scud 
clouds driving across heavy masses, show wind, 
and rain, but if alone may indicate wind only. 

Fitzroy. 

Form While any of the clouds, except the nimbus, retain 
their primitive forms, no rain can take place, 
and it is by observing the changes and tran- 
sitions of cloud-form, that weather may be pre- 
dicted. Howard. 

Small Small scattering clouds flying high in the south-west 
foreshow whirlwinds. Howard. 

{Cirrus Parallel flexuous or diverging fibres, extensible in 
definitiori) any or all directions. Howard. 



(indicating 
wind) 



(fine 
weather) 

(rain) 



Common Names — Curl Cloud, Mare's Tails, Goat's 
Hair, &c. Foster. 

Long parallel bands of clouds in the direction of the 
wind indicate steady high winds to come. 

If cirrus clouds dissolve and appear to vanish, it is an 
indication of fine weather. 

If the cirrus clouds appear to windward, and change 
to cirro stratus, it is a sign of rain. 

Streaky clouds across the wind foreshow rain. 

Scotland. 



58 



WEATHER WISDOM. 



Clouds. 



Clouds (Cirrus) 
{rain and These clouds announce the east wind. If their 
wind) under surface is level and their streaks pointing 

upwards, they indicate rain ; if downwards, 
wind and dry weather. Howard. 

{rain) If cirrus clouds form in fine weather with a falling- 
barometer, it is almost sure to rain. Howard. 

{bad iveather)\t the cirrus clouds get lower and denser to leeward, 
it presages bad weather from the opposite 
quarter. 

{storms) When the cirrus clouds appear at lower elevations 
than usual, and with a denser character, expect 
a storm from the opposite quarter to the clouds. 

{thaiv) When, after a clear frost, long streaks of cirrus are 
seen with their ends bending towards each 
other as they recede from the zenith, and when 
they point to the north-east, a thaw and a 
south-west wind may be expected. 



{wet) Continued wet weather is attended by horizontal 
sheets of cirrus clouds which subside quickly, 
passing into the cirro stratus. 

{Cirro Horizontal or slightly inclined masses attenuated 
Stratus towards a part or the whole of their circum- 

definition) ference, bent downwards, or undulated, sepa- 

rate, or in groups, or consisting of small clouds 
having these characters. Howard. 

{wind) If clouds look as if scratched by a hen, 

Get ready to reef your topsails then. Nautical. 

Continuous cirro-strati gathering into unbroken 
gloom, and also the cloud called goat's hair, or 
the grey mare's tail, presage wind. Scotland. 

{indicating When after a shower the cirro strata open up at the 
wind) zenith, leaving broken or ragged edges pointing 

upwards, and settle down gloomily and com- 
pactly on the horizon, wind will follow and will 
last for some time. Scotland. 



WEATHER WISDOM. 59 



Clouds. 



Clouds (Cirro Stratus) 
{wind and The cirro stratus precedes winds and rains, and the 
rain) approach of foul weather may sometimes be in- 

ferred from its greater or less abundance and 
the permanent character it puts on. 

„ If clouds appear high in air in their white trains, wind 

and probably rain will follow. 

{Fish- The cirro stratus is doubtless the one alluded to by 
Shaped) Polonius, in Hamlet, as " Very like a whale." 

„ The fish (hake) shaped cloud, if pointing east and 

west, indicates rain ; if north and south, more 
fine weather. Bedfordshire. 

„ A long stripe of cloud, sometimes called a salmon, 
sometimes a Noah's ark, when it stretches east 
and west, is a sign of a storm, but when north 
and south, of fine weather. 

{with cirrus)L\ght fleecy clouds in rapid motion, below compact 
dark cirro strati, foretell rain near at hand. 

Scotland. 

{indicating The waved cirro stratus indicates heat and thunder, 
thunder) 

{Cirro Small well-defined roundish masses increasing from 
Cumulus below. Howard. 

definition) Commonly called mackerel sky. 

( Packet -boys)These clouds are called in Buckinghamshire packet 
boys, and are said to be packets of rain soon to 
be opened. 

{indicating Mackerel sky and mare's tails, 
wind) Make lofty ships carry low sails. 

(rain) A mackerel sky denotes fair weather for that day, 
but rain a day or two after. 

{change) Mackerel sky — 

Neither long wet nor long dry. 



6o 



WEATHER WISDOM. 



Clouds. 



Clouds (Stratus, &c.) 

{fine) If woolly fleeces spread the heavenly way, 
Be sure no rain disturbs the summer day. 



( Cirro 
Cumulus^ 

indicating 
thunder) 

(storm) 



Before thunder, cirro cumulus clouds often appear 
in very dense and compact masses, in close 
contact. 



The cirro cumulus, when accompanied by the 
cumulo-stratus, is a sure indication of a coming- 
storm. 



(Stratus, A widely extended continuous horizontal sheet, 

definition) 



increasing- from below. 



Howard. 



(fine) 



These clouds have always been regarded as the 
harbingers of fine weather, and there are few 
finer days in the year than when the morning 
breaks out through a disappearing stratus cloud. 



(Nimbus, A rain cloud — a cloud or system of clouds from 
definition) which rain is falling. It is a horizontal sheet 

over which the cirrus spreads, while the cumulus 
enters it laterally and from beneath. 

(rain) By watering he wearieth the thick cloud. 

Job xxxuii., v. 1 1 . 



(Prophet When scattered patches, or streaks of nimbus come 
clouds) driving up from the south-west, they are called 

by the sailors " Prophet Clouds," and indicate 
wind. 

{ Cumulus, Convex or conical heaps increasing upwards from a 
definition) 



horizontal base — wool bag clouds. 



(wind) Cumulus clouds high up are said to show that south 
and south-west winds are near at hand, and 
stratified clouds low down, that east or north 
winds will prevail. Scotland. 



WEATHER WISDOM. 61 

Clouds. 

Clouds (Cumulus) 

{rain) Before rain these clouds augment in volume with 
great rapidity, sink to a lower elevation, and 
become fleecy and irregular in appearance, with 
their surfaces full of protuberances. They 
usually also remain stationary, or else sail 
against the wind previous to wet weather. 

{wet calm) The formation of cumulus clouds to leeward during 
a strong wind indicates the approach of a calm 
with rain. 

{Fair When the cumulus clouds are smaller at sunset 
weather) than they were at noon, expect fair weather. 

( Cumulus, If clouds are formed like fleeces, deep and dense, or 
indicating thick and close towards the middle, the edges 

hail, snow, being very white, while the surrounding sky 

or rain) is bright and blue, they are of a frosty coldness, 

and will speedily fall in hail, snow, or rain. 

{storm) And another storm brewing ; I hear it sing i' the 
wind, yond' same black cloud, yond' huge one, 
looks like a foul bumbard that would shed his 
liquor * * Yond' same cloud cannot chuse 
but fall by pailfuls. Shakespere, Tempest. 



)> 



» 



The pocky cloud or heavy cumulus, like festoons of 
drapery, forbodes a storm. Scotland. 

In summer or harvest, when the wind has been 
south for two or three days, and it grows very 
hot, and you see clouds rise with great white 
tops like towers, as if one were upon the top 
of another and joined together with black on 
the nether side, there will be thunder and rain 
suddenly. If two such clouds arise, one on 
either hand, it is time to make haste to shelter. 

Shepherd of Banbury. 

{thunder) When cumulus clouds become heaped up to leeward 
during a strong wind at sunset, thunder may be 
expected during the night. 



62 



WEATHER WISDOM. 



Clouds. 



Clouds (Cumulo Stratus) 
(Cumulo The cirro stratus blended with the cumulus, and 
Stratus, either appearing- intermixed with the heaps of 

definition) the latter, or superadding- a wide spread 

structure to its base. Howard. 

(clouds, After black clouds, clear weather. 
black) 

„ Clouds that are carried with a tempest, to whom 

the mist of darkness is reserved for ever. 

2 Peter, chap. ii., v. 17. 

„ So foul a sky clears not without a storm. 

Shakespere, King John. 

(on hills) When the clouds are upon the hills 
They'll come down by the mills. 

(Helm A cloud, called the Helm Cloud, hovering about the 
cloud) hill tops for a day or two, is said to presage 

wind and rain. Yorkshire. 

„ Misty clouds, forming or hanging on heights, show 

wind and rain coming, if they remain, increase, 
or descend. If they rise or disperse, the weather 
will improve. Fitzroy. 

„ When the clouds on the hill tops are thick and in 

motion, rain to the south-west is regarded as 
certain to follow. Scotland. 



Cheviot When Cheviot ye see put on his cap, 
Of rain ye'll have a wee bit drap. 

Riving Pike If Riving Pike do wear a hood, 



Scotland. 



Be sure the day will ne'er be good. Lancashire. 



Roseberry If Roseberry Topping wears a cap, 
Topping Let Cleveland then beware of a rap. 



WEATHER WISDOM. 63 

Clouds. 

Clouds 

Breddon When Breddon Hill puts on his hat, 
Hill Ye men of the vale beware of that. Worcestershire. 

Largo Law When Largo Law puts on his hat 
Let Kellie Law beware of that ; 
When Kellie Law gets on his cap 
Largo Law may laugh at that. Scotland. 

Note. — Largo Law is to the south-west of Kellie 
Law. 

Cairns Muir When Cairns Muir wears a hat, 

The Macher's Rills may laugh at that. 

Note.— Cairns Muir is N.N.E. of Macher's Rills, 
Wigtownshire, Scotland. 

Cornsancone If Cornsancone put on his cap, and the Knipe be 
clear, it will rain within twenty-four hours. 

Note. — This is a sign which it is said never fails. 
Cornsancone Hill is to the east, and the Knipe 
to the south-west of the New Cumnock districts 
where the proverb is current. 

„ A cloud on Sidlaw Hills foretells rain to Carmylie. 

„ Bin Hill „ „ „ Cullen. 

„ Paps of Jura „ „ „ \ Gigha and 

„ Mull of Kintyre „ „ „ J Cara. 

Skiddaw Heavy clouds on Skiddaw, especially with a south 
wind, the farmer of Kirkpatrick, Fleming, looks 
on as an indication of coming rain. 

Note. — Skiddaw lies to the south of the place. 

Criffel The rolling of clouds landward and their gathering 
about the summit of Criffel is regarded as a 
sign of foul weather in Dumfries and Kirk- 
patrick, Fleming, and intervening parishes. 
Note.— Criffel is to the S.W. of the place. 



6 4 WEATHER WISDOM. 

Clouds. 



Clouds 
Craighill There is a high wooded hill above Lochnau Castle, 
Take care when Lady Craighill puts on her mantle ; 
The Lady looks high and knows what is coming-, 
Delay not one moment to get under covering. 

Note. — The hill lies to the north-west of the dis- 
trict where this saying is quoted. 

Mist White mist in winter indicates frost. 
{white) Scotland. 

{black) Black mist indicates coming rain. 

{in low If mists rise in low ground and . soon vanish, expect 
ground) fair weather. Shepherd of Banbury. 

{on hills) If mist rise to the hill tops and there stay, expect 
rain shortly. 

on moun- Thin, white, fleecy broken mist slowly ascending the 
tains sides of a mountain whose top is uncovered, 

predicts a fair day. Scotland. 

„ When the mist creeps up the hill, 

Fisher out and try your skill ; 
When the mist begins to nod, 
Fisher then put past your rod. Scotland. 

„ A white mist in the evening, over a meadow with 

a river, will be drawn up by the sun next 
morning, and the day will be bright. — Five or 
six fogs successively drawn up portend rain. 
* Where there are high hills, and the mist which 
hangs over the lower lands draws towards the 
hills in the morning, and rolls up to the top, it 
will be fair : but if the mist hangs upon the 
hills, and drag-s along the woods, there will be 
rain. Rev. W.Jones. 

„ When the mist comes from the hill, 

Then good weather it doth spill ; 
When the mist comes from the sea, 
Then good weather it will be. 



WEATHER WISDOM. 65 

Mist, Dews, &c. 

Mist 
and fogs In the evenings of Autumn and Spring - vapour arising 
from a river is regarded as a sure indication of 
coming frost. Scotland. 

Haze Hazy weather is thought to prognosticate frost in 
winter, snow in spring, fair weather in summer, 
and rain in autumn. Scotland. 

Dews The dews of the evening industriously shun, 
{evening) They're the tears of the sky for the loss of the sun. 

„ If the dew lies plentifully on the grass after a fair day, 
it is a sign of another. If not, and there is no 
wind, rain must follow. Rev. W.Jones. 

and fog When in the morning the dew is heavy and remains 
long on the grass, when the fog in the valleys is 
slowly dispersed and lingers on the hill sides, 
when the clouds seem to be taking a hig-her 
place, and when a few loose cirro-strati float 
gently along, serene weather may be expected 
for the greater part of that day. Scotland. 

„ Dew is an indication of fine weather ; so is fog. 

Fitzroy. 

Sky 
{clear) Clear in the south beguiled the cadger. 

Scotland, 

„ A small cloudless place in the north-east horizon is 

regarded both by seamen and landsmen as a 
certain precurser of fine weather or a clearing 
up. Scotland. 

Colours A dark gloomy blue sky is windy, but a light 
bright blue sky indicates fine weather ; when 
the sky is of a sickly-looking greenish hue, wind 
or rain may be expected. Fitzroy. 



66 WEATHER WISDOM. 

Sky, Rain. 

Sky 
Greenish If the sky is of a deep clear blue or a sea-green 
colour near the horizon, rain will follow in 
showers. 

„ In winter when the sky about mid-day has a greenish 

appearance to the east or north-east, snow and 
frost are expected. Scotland. 

„ When the sky in rainy weather is tinged with sea- 

green, the rain will increase ; if with deep blue, 
it will be showery. Rev. W.Jones. 

Reflecting The glare of the distant Ayrshire ironworks being 
seen at night from Cumbrae or Rothsay, rain is 
. expected next day. Scotland. 

„ In Kincardine of Monteith and in all that district, the 

reflection from the clouds of the furnaces of the 
Devon and Carron works (to the east) fortells 
rain next day. Scotland. 

(yellowish) The carle sky 

Keeps not the head dry. 

„ From Dumfries to Gretna a lurid yellowish sky in 

the east or south-east is called a Carlisle or 
Carle sky, and is regarded as a sure sign of 
rain. Scotland. 

Rain, from If it begin to rain from the south with a high wind 
South for two or three hours, and the wind falls but 

the rain continues, it is likely to rain twelve 
hours or more, and does usually rain till a 
strong north wind clears the air. These long 
rains seldom hold above twelve hours, or hap- 
pen above once a year. 

Shepherd of Banbury. 

„ morning Rain before seven, 
Lift before eleven. 



WEATHER WISDOM. 67 

Rain. 

Rain 

morning Morning - rains are soon past. France. 

„ „ If it begin to rain an hour or two before sunris- 
ing it is likely to be fair before noon, and so 
continue that day; but if the rain begin an 
hour or two after sunrising it is likely to rain 
all that day except the rainbow be seen before 
it rains. Shepherd of Banbury. 

„ midnight If it rain at midnight with a south wind, it will 
generally last above twelve hours. 

„andwind Small rain abates high wind. France. 

„ uncertain It rains by planets. 

„ sudden Sudden rains never last long, but when the air 
grows thick by degrees, and the sun, moon, 
and stars shine dimmer and dimmer, then it is 
likely to rain six hours usually. 

Shepherd of Banbury. 

„ from They are wet with the showers of the mountains. 
mountains fob xxiv., ver. 8. 

„ during If it rain when the sun shines it will surely rain 
swishine the next day about the same hour. 

Suffolk. 

„ „ A sunshiny shower 

Never lasts half-an-hour. Bedfordshire. 



J5 



„ Sunshiny rain 

Will soon go again. Devonshire 



„ showers If short showers come during dry weather they are 
short said to " harden the drought " and indicate no 

change. Scotland. 



68 WEATHER WISDOM. 

Rain, Storms, &c. 

Rain 

„ preceded 

by fair There is usually fair weather before a settled course 
weather of rain. Fitzroy. 

„ followed If hail appear after a long - course of rain, it is a 
by hail sign of clearing up. Scotland. 

Storms, Untimely storms make men expect a dearth. 
unseasonable Shakespere, Richard III. 

„ in As humorous as winter, and as sudden 

morning As flaws congealed in the spring of day. 

Shakespere, Henry IV. 

„ sigh of Just before a storm the sea heaves and sighs. 

liizroy. 

Squalls Squalls are considered as a favourable sign in 
tempests and hurricanes, as shortly preceding 
their discontinuance. They are accessions of 
new air, to the prevailing wind or storm, and 
partly from a new direction, and are generally 
accompanied by arched clouds, or thunderstorms, 
and by rain. Fitzroy. 

„ sudden The sudden storm lasts not three hours. 

„ „ The sharper the blast 

The sooner 't is past. Charles Wesley. 

small showers Small showers last long, but sudden storms are short. 

Shakespere, Richard II. 

„ „ The faster the rain, the quicker the hold up. 

Norfolk. 

„ „ After a storm comes a calm. 

„ changes Lang foul 

Lang fair. Buchanans Almanack. Scotland. 



WEATHER WISDOM. 69 

Thunder, &c. 

Thunder 

Silence before We often see, against some storm, 

a A silence in the heavens, the rack stand still, 

thunder stormThe bold winds speechless, and the orb below 
As hush as death : anon the dreadful thunder 
Doth rend the region. Shakespere, Ha??ilet. 

TJiunder in Thunder in y e morning signifies wynde, about noone 
7?iorning rayne, in y e evening great tempest. Digges. 

„ and rain After much thunder, much rain. France. 

„ from A thunderstorm from the south is said to be followed 
south by warmth, and from the north by cold ; when 

the storm disappears in the east it is a sign of 
fine weather. Scotland. 

Lightning Sheet lightning, without thunder, during the night, 
having a whitish colour, announces unsettled 
weather. In the west of Scotland morning 
lightning is regarded as an omen of bad 
weather. Scotland. 

Rainbow If there be a rainbow in the eve 
It will rain and leave ; 
But if there be a rainbow in the morrow 
It will neither lend nor borrow. 

„ Rainbow to windward, foul fall the day, 

Rainbow to leeward, damp runs away. Nautical. 

„ If a rainbow appear in fair weather, foul will follow, 

but if a rainbow appear in foul weather, fair will 
follow. 



>f 



The rainbow in the marnin 
Gives the shepherd warnin 

To car' his gurt cwoat on his back ; 
The rainbow at night is the shepherd's delight, 

For then no gurt cwoat will he lack. 

Wiltshire. 



7 o WEATHER WISDOM. 

Rainbow, &c. 



Rainbow 

„ A rainbow in the morning 

Is the shepherd's warning- ; 
A rainbow at night 
Is the shepherd's delight. 

„ When a rainbow appears in wind's eye rain is sure 

to follow. 

Undulation Much undulation in the air, on a hot day in May or 
in air June, foretells cold. Scotland. 

Clearness When the distant hills are more than usually dis- 
of air tinct, rain approaches. 

Frost, &*c. Quick thaw, long frost. Old Anglo-Saxon. 

Hoar Frost Hoar frost is good for vines but bad for corn. 

France. 

Frost 6° Fog He that would have a bad day maun gang out in a 
fog after a frost. Scotch. 

Bearded frost Bearded frost, forerunner of snow. 

Hail Hail brings frost in the tail. 

„ A hailstorm by day denotes a frost at night. 

Aurora The aurora borealis indicates approaching change. 

„ The first great aurora, after a long tract of fine 
weather in September or beginning of October, 
is followed on the second day, and not till the 
second day about one o'clock, on the east coast, 
and about eleven o'clock in Nithsdale, by a 
great storm ; the next day after the aurora 
is fine weather. Scotland, Professor Christison. 

, If an aurora appear durino- warm weather, cold and 

cloudy weather is to follow. Scotland. 



WEATHER WISDOM. 71 

St. Elmo's Fire, &c. 

Meteors 

Numerous falling stars presage wind next day. 

Scotland. 

Electric Last night I saw St. Elmo's stars, 

Lights With their glimmering lanterns all at play, 

On the tops of the masts and the tips of the spars, 
And I knew we should have foul weather that 
day. 

Tide If, after the first ebb of the tide, it flows again for a 
little while, a storm approaches. Scotch Coast. 

„ Showers occur more frequently at the turn of the 
tide. 

Flood If the river Tweed rise without rain, it foretells the 
same within 1 2 hours. 



72 WEATHER WISDOM. 



ANIMALS, &c. 

The observations of naturalists, shepherds, herdsmen, and 
others who have been brought much into contact with animals, 
have proved most clearly that these creatures are cognisant of 
approaching- changes in the state of the air long before we 
know of their coming by other signs. To many kinds of 
animals, birds, and insects, the weather is of so much more im- 
portance than to us that it would be wonderful if nature had not 
provided them with a more keenly prophetic instinct in this 
respect. The occurrence of a storm would, doubtless, be the 
means of depriving some of the carnivora of a meal, and it is 
known that utter destruction would occur to the nests of some 
birds if the tenants were absent during a gale of wind or a 
pelting shower ; while to vast numbers of insects the state of the 
weather for the fraction of a week may determine the whole 
time during which they can enjoy their little lives. To enable 
all these creatures to prepare for coming trouble they seem to 
have been fitted with what is to us an unknown sense informing 
them of minute changes in the atmosphere, and it has long been 
observed that they eat with more avidity, return to their homes, 
or become unusually restless before the coming of the danger of 
which they are forewarned. 

This is a subject on which there is still a great deal to be 
learnt, and I hope naturalists will continue to collect notes on so 
important a matter. 



WEATHER WISDOM. 75 

Animals, &c. 

Animals When animals seek sheltered places instead of 
spreading- over their usual range, an un- 
favourable change is probable. 

„ If animals crowd together, rain will follow. 

Dogs When dogs eat grass it will be rainy. 

„ If dogs roll on the ground and scratch, or become 

drowsy and stupid, it is a sign of rain. 

Spaniels If spaniels sleep more than usual it foretells wet 
weather. 

Cats When cats sneeze it is a sign of rain. 

„ Cats are observed to scratch the wall or a post 

before wind, and to wash their faces before a 
thaw, they sit with their backs to the fire before 
snow. Scotland. 

„ While rain depends, the pensive cat gives o'er her 

frolics, and pursues her tail no more. 

Broome. 



When cats wipe their jaws with their feet it is a sign 
of rain. 



Horses If horses stretch out their necks and sniff the air, 
rain will ensue. 

Cattle The cattle also concerning the vapour. 

Job xxxvz'., v. 33. 

Bulls If bulls lick their hoofs or kick about, expect much 
rain. 



74 WEATHER WISDOM. 

Animals, &c. 

Animals 

Bulls If the bull lead the van in going- to pasture, rain 
must be expected, but if he is careless and 
allow the cows to precede him, the weather will 
be uncertain. 

Oxen If oxen turn up their nostrils and sniff the air, or if 
they lick their fore feet, or lie on their right 
side it will rain. 

Asses If asses hang their ears downward and forward, 
and rub against walls, rain is approaching. 

„ If asses bray more frequently than usual, it foreshows 
rain. 



„ Hark ! I hear the asses bray, 

We shall have some rain to-day. Rutland. 

„ It is time to stack your hay and corn, 
When the old donkey blows his horn. 

Goats Goats leave the high grounds and seek shelter 
before a storm. Scotland. 

Goats and If goats and sheep quit their pastures with reluc- 
Sheep tance, it will rain the next day. 

Sheep If sheep gambol and fight, or retire to shelter, it 
presages a change in the weather. 

„ Old sheep are said to eat greedily before a storm, 

and sparingly before a thaw ; when they leave 
the high grounds and bleat much in the evening 
and during the night, severe weather is expected. 
In winter, when they feed down the hill, a snow 
storm it looked for; when they feed up the 
burn, wet weather is near. 



WEATHER WISDOM. 



75 



Animals, &c. 



Animals 

Sheep When sheep turn their backs to the wind, it is a 
sign of rain. 

Pigs When pigs carry straw to their sties, bad weather 
may be expected. 

„ When pigs are more than usually restless or grunt- 

ing, it will rain. 

Rats If rats are more restless than usual, rain is at hand. 

Mice If mice run about more than usual, wet weather may 
be expected. 

Moles If moles throw up more earth than usual, rain is indi- 
cated. 

Hares Hares take to the open country before a snow storm. 

Scotland. 

Weasels, If these animals are seen running about much in the 
Stoats, &*c. forenoon, it fortells rain in the after part of the 

day. Scotland. 

Bats It will rain if bats cry much or fly into the house. 



„ If bats abound and are vivacious, fine weather may 

be expected. 

Birds . When the fieldfare, redwing, starling, swan, snow- 
fleck, and other birds of passage arrive soon 
from the north, it indicates the probability of an 
early and severe winter. Scotland. 

„ When birds of long flight — rooks, swallows, or 

others, hang about home and fly up and down 
or low, rain or wind may be expected. 



76 WEATHER WISDOM. 



Birds, &c. 



Birds 

„ If birds return slowly to their nests, rain will follow. 

Small birds If small birds seem to duck and wash in the sand, it 
is held to be a sign of coming rain. 

Sea-birds When sea-birds fly out early and far to seaward, 
moderate winds and fair weather may be ex- 
pected. When they hang about the land or 
over it, sometimes flying inland, expect a strong 
wind with stormy weather. 

„ If sea fowl retire to the shore or marshes, a storm 

approaches. 

Fowls If fowls grub in the dust and clap their wings, or if 
their wings droop, it indicates coming rain. 

„ If fowls roll in the sand, 

Rain is at hand. 

„ , If the cock moult before the hen, 

We shall have weather thick and thin ; 
But if the hen moult before the cock, 
We shall have weather hard as a block. 

Cock If the cock drink in summer it will rain a little after. 

Italy. 

„ If cocks crow late' and early, clapping their wings 

unusually, rain is expected. 

„ If the cock goes crowing to bed, 

He'll certainly rise with a watery head. 

Hen and If a hen and chickens crowd into a house, it is a sign 
chickens of rain. 



WEATHER WISDOM. 77 

Birds, &c. 



Birds 

Ducks. When ducks are driving- through the burn, 
That night the weather takes a turn. 

Ducks and If ducks and geese fly backwards and forwards, and 
geese continually plunge in water and wash them- 

selves incessantly, wet weather will ensue. 

Swan If the swan flies against the wind, it is a certain in- 
dication of a hurricane within twenty-four hours, 
generally within twelve. 
Correspondent in the Athemxtim, Vol. III., p. 229. 

„ When the white swan visits the Orkneys, expect a 
continued severe winter. Scotland. 

Pigeons If pigeons return home slowly, the weather will be 
wet. 

Rooks When rooks seem to drop in their flight, as if 
pierced by a shot, it is considered to foretell 
rain. 

„ This " tumbling " of rooks is amongst the best known 
signs of rain in places where those birds are 
found. 

The low flight of rooks indicates rain. If they feed 
busily and hurry over the ground in one direc- 
tion, and in a compact body, a storm will soon 
follow. When they sit in rows on dykes and 
palings, wind is looked for ; when going- home 
to roost, if they fly high, the next day will be 
fair, and vice versa. If when flying high they 
dart down and wheel about in circles, wind is 
foreshown. In autumn and winter, if after 
feeding in the morning they return to the 
rookery and hang about it, rain is to be 
expected. Scotland. 



78 WEATHER WISDOM. 

Birds. 

Birds 

Rooks When rooks fly sporting high in air 
It shows that windy storms are near. 

„ If rooks stay at home, or return in the middle of the 
day, it will rain ; if they go far abroad, it will be 
fine. Devonshire. 

Thrush The missile thrush (in Hampshire called the storm- 
cock) sing particularly loud and long before 
rain. 

Starlings, If starlings and crows congregate together in large 
&=c. numbers, expect rain. 

Magpie When magpies fly abroad singly, the weather either 
is or will soon be stormy, but when both birds 
are seen together, the weather will be mild. 

Jackdaws When three daws are seen on St. Peter's vane 
together 
Then we're sure to have bad weather. Norwich. 

Swallows If swallows touch the water as they fly, rain 
approaches. 

Robins If robins are seen near houses, it is a sign of rain. 

Sparrows If sparrows chirp a great deal, wet weather will 
ensue. 



Rave?is If ravens croak three or four times and flap their 
wings, fine weather is expected. 

Blackbirds When the voices of blackbirds are unusually shrill, or 
when blackbirds sing much in the morning, 
rain will follow. 

Larks If larks fly high and sing long, expect fine weather. 



WEATHER WISDOM. 79 

Birds. 

Birds 

Oivls If Owls scream during- bad weather, there will be a 
change. 

„ The dirt bird (or dirt owl) sings, and we shall have 
rain. 



Ptarmigan The frequently repeated cry of the ptarmigan low 
down on the mountains during frost and snow, 
indicates more snow and continued cold. 

Scotland. 

Hem or When the hern or bittern flies low, the air is gross 
Bittern and thickening into showers. 



Cranes If cranes appear in autumn early, a severe winter is 
expected. 



Peacock When the peacock loudly bawls 

Soon we'll have both rain and squalls. 

„ If peacocks cry in the night, there is rain to fall. 

„ Much crying of peacocks denotes rain. 

Grouse The gathering of grouse into large flocks indicates 
snow. Their approach to the farm yard is a 
sign of severe weather — frost and snow. When 
they sit on dykes in the moor, rain only is ex- 
pected. Scotland. 

Dotterel When dotterel do fast appear, 
It shows that frost is very near ; 
But when the dotterel do go, 
Then you may look for heavy snow. Scotland. 



80 WEATHER WISDOM. 

Birds, &c. 

Birds 

Snipes The drumming - of the snipe in the air, and the call 
of the partridge, indicate dry weather and frost 
at night to the shepherds of Garrow. 

Scotland. 



Fulmar If the fulmar seek land, it. is a sign to the in- 
habitants of St. Kilda that the west wind is far 
off. 



Petrel If the stormy petrel seek the shore or the wake of 
a vessel, a storm is imminent. 



Kites If kites fly high, fine weather is at hand. 



Woodpeckers When woodpeckers are much heard, rain will 
follow. 



Fishes Fishes rise more than usual at the approach of a 
storm. In some parts of England they are said 
not to bite so well before rain. 



Dolphins If dolphins are seen to leap and toss, fine weather 
may be expected, and the wind will blow from 
the quarter in which they are seen. 



Porpoises When porpoises swim to windward, foul weather 
will ensue within twelve hours. 



Earth- If many earth worms appear, it presages rain. 
worms 



Toads If toads come out of their holes in great numbers, 
rain will fall soon. 



WEATHER WISDOM. 81 

Reptiles, &c. 

Reptiles 

Frogs When frogs croak much it is a sign of rain. 

„ If frogs, instead of yellow, appear russet green, it 

will presently rain. 

„ If frogs make a noise in the time of cold rain, warm 

dry weather will follow. 

„ When frogs spawn in the middle of the water it is a 

sign of drought, and when at the side it fore- 
tells a wet summer. Scotland. 

Snakes Rain is foretold by the appearance and activity of 
snakes. 

Leech A leech confined in a bottle of water is always 
agitated when a change of weather is about to 
take place. Before high winds it moves about 
with much celerity. Previous to slight rain or 
snow it creeps to the top of the bottle but soon 
sinks ; but, if the rain or wind is likely to be of 
long duration, the leech remains a longer time 
at the surface. If thunder approaches, the leech 
starts about in an agitated and convulsive 
manner. 



Snails When black snails cross your path, 
Black clouds much moisture hath. 



Glowworm When the glowworm lights her lamp, 
The air is always damp. 

„ If glowworms shine much it will rain. 

Bees When many bees enter the hive and none leave it, 
rain is near. Scotland, 



82 WEATHER WISDOM. 

Bees. 

Bees 

If bees stay at home, 
Rain will soon come ; 
If they fly away, 
Fine will be the day. 

„ A swarm of bees in May 

Is worth a load of hay ; 
A swarm of bees in June 
Is worth a silver spoon — 
But a swarm in July 
Is not worth a fly. 

„ A bee was never caugiit in a shower. 



WEATHER WISDOM. 83 



PLANTS, &c. 



The vegetable world has not escaped the notice of the weather 
prophets, and many plants have been observed to give indica- 
tions of stormy weather long before it actually take place. 
The closing, for instance, of the pink-eyed pimpernel, or plough- 
man's weather glass, is better understood among the Bedfordshire 
labourers than the indications of any instrument, and has to 
them the great advantage of being in the fields where they work, 
of being easily understood, and of costing nothing. From the 
blossoming and fruition of certain plants a rough code of rules 
has also been laid down as to the coming harvest, the time for 
sowing, and the severity or mildness of the seasons. These will 
be found mentioned in their proper places. 

Dandelion When the down of the dandelion contracts, it is a 
sign of rain. 

Wood Sorrel A species of wood sorrel contracts its leaves at the 
approach of rain. 

Gnats If gnats play up and down, it is a sign of heat, but 
if in the shade it presages mild showers ; if they 
collect in the evening before sunset and form a 
vortex or column, fine weather will follow, while 
if they sting much it is held to be an unfailing 
indication of rain. 



84 WEATHER WISDOM. 

Insects, &c. 

Insects 

Flies If flies cling much to the ceilings, or disappear, rain 
may be expected. 

„ If flies sting and are more troublesome than usual, a 

change approaches. 

Ants If ants are more than ordinarily active, or if they 
remove their eggs from small hills, it will surely 
rain. 

Crickets When crickets chirp unusually, wet is expected. 

Beetles and Before rain, beetles and crickets are more trouble- 
crickets some than usual. 

Clock beetle If the clock beetle flies circularly and buzzes, it is a 
sign of fine weather. 

Rain beetle A certain long-bodied beetle is called in Bedford- 
shire the rain beetle, on account of its always 
appearing before rain. 

Spiders If garden spiders forsake their cobwebs rain is at 
hand. 

Gossamer When you see gossamer flying, 
Be sure the air is drying. 

Chick- Chickweed expands its leaves boldly and fully when 
weed fine weather is to follow, but if it should shut 

up, then the traveller is to put on his great 

coat. 

Siberian If the flowers keep open all night the weather will 
Sow Thistle be wet next day. 

Clover Clover contracts its leaves at the approach of a 
storm. 



WEATHER WISDOM. 85 

Plants, &c. 



Plants 

Convol- The convolvolus folds up its petals at the approach 
volus of rain. 

African If this plant do not open its petals by seven in the 
Marigold morning-, it will rain or thunder that day. It 

also closes before a storm. 

Sensitive Sensitive plants contract their leaves at the approach 
plants of rain. 

Seaweed A piece of kelp or seaweed hung- up will become 
damp previous to rain. 

Pink-eyed When this flower closes in the day time, it is a sign 
Pimpernel of rain.* 

Various The indications of plants, as to the times for sheep 
plants shearing, harvest, &c, will be found under the 

head of "Times and Seasons." 

Flowers The odour of flowers is more apparent just before 
a shower (when the air is moist) than at any 
other time. 

Bust Dust rising in dry weather is a sign of approaching 
chansre. Scotland. 



*£> 



„ If dust whirl round in eddies when being blown 

about by the wind, it is a sign of rain. 

Chairs and When chairs and tables creak and crack it will rain. 
Tables 

Walls When walls are more than usually damp, rain is 
expected. 



• This flower is called the countryman's weather glass. 



86 WEATHER WISDOM. 

Various Signs of Rain. 



Soot If soot falls down the chimney, rain will ensue. 

Corns, If corns, wounds, and sores itch, or ache more than 
wounds, usual, rain is to fall shortly. 

and sores 

Corns A coming- storm your shooting- corns presage, 

And aches will throb, your hollow tooth will rage. 

Broome. 

Rheumatism When rheumatic people complain of more than 
ordinary pains in the joints, it will rain. 

Winds CloudsThe hollow winds begin to blow, 
Barometer The clouds look black, the glass is low, 
Soot The soot falls down, the spaniels sleep, 
Spiders And spiders from their cobwebs creep. 
Sunset Last night the sun went pale to bed, 
Moon The moon in halves hid her head, 
Rainbow The boding shepherd heaves a sigh. 
For, see ! a rainbow spans the sky ; 
Walls ditches The walls are damp, the ditches smell, 
Pimpernel Closed is the pink-eyed pimpernel ; 
Chairs Hark how the chairs and tables crack, 
Joints Old Betty's joints are on the rack ; 
Ducks Loud quack the ducks, the peacocks cry, 
Peacocks, hills The distant hills are looking nigh ; 
Swine- How restless are the snorting swine, 
Flies The busy flies disturb the kine ; 
Swallow Low o'er the grass the swallow wings, 
Cricket The cricket, too, how sharp he sings ; 
Cat Puss on the hearth, with velvet paws, 
Sits wiping o'er her whiskered jaws, 
Fishes Through the clear stream the fishes rise 
And nimbly catch th' incautious flies ; 
Glowworms The glowworms, numerous and bright, 
Illumed the dewy dell last night ; 
Toad At dusk the squalid toad was seen 

Hopping and crawling o'er the green, 



WEATHER WISDOM. 



Various Signs of Rain. 



Dust 



Frog 



Air 

Blackbird 
Dog 

Rooks 



The whirling- dust the wind obeys, 

And in the rapid eddy plays : 

The frog - has changed his yellow vest, 

And in a russet coat is dressed ; 

Though June, the air is cold and still, 

The yellow blackbird's voice is shrill ; 

My dog so altered in his taste, 

Quits mutton bones on grass to feast ; 

And, see yon rooks how odd their flight, 

They imitate the gliding kite, 

And seem precipitate to fall, 

As if they felt the piercing ball — 

'Twill surely rain — I see with sorrow 

Our jaunt must be put off to-morrow\ Dr. Jcnncr. 



Wind 
Sea 

Leaves 
Mountains 
Waves 

Cormorants 

Coots 
Herons 



Meteors 



Chaff 

Leaves 
Feathers 
Thunder 

Winds 



Clouds 



For ere the rising winds begin to roar, 
The working seas advance to wash the shore ; 
Soft whispers run along the leafy woods, 
And mountains whistle to the murmuring floods. 
Ev'n then the doubtful billows scarce abstain 
From the toss't vessel on the troubled main : 
When crying cormorants forsake the sea, 
And, stretching to the covert, wing their way — 
When sportful coots run skimming o'er the strand ; 
When watchful herons leave their watery stand, 
And mounting upward with erected flight, 
Gain on the skies and soar above the sight : 
And oft, before tempestuous winds arise, 
The seeming stars fall headlong from the skies, 
And shooting through the darkness gild the night 
With sweeping glories, and long trails of light ; 
And chaff with eddy winds is whirl'd around, 
And dancing leaves are lifted from the ground ; 
And floating feathers on the waters play : 
But when the winged thunder takes his way 
From the cold north and east and west engage, 
And at their frontiers meet with equal rage, 
The clouds are crush'd ; a glut of gathered rain 
The hollow ditches fills, and floats the plain ; 
And sailors furl their dropping sheets amain. 



88 



WEATHER WISDOM. 



Various Signs of the Weather. 



Rain Wet weather seldom hurts the most unwise ; 

So plain the signs, such prophets are the skies. 
Crane The wary crane foresees it first, and sails 

Above the storm, and leaves the lowly vales : 
Cow The cow looks up, and from afar can find 

The change of heav'n, and snuffs it in the wind : 
Swallow The swallow skims the river's watr'y face : 
Frogs The frogs renew the croaks of their loquacious race. 
Ants The careful ant her secret cell forsakes, 

And drags her eggs along the narrow tracks : 
Rainbow At either born the rainbow drinks the flood : 
Rooks Huge flocks of rising rooks foresake their food, 
And, crying, seek the shelter of the wood. 
Waterfowl Besides the several sorts of wat'ry fowls, 

That swim the seas or haunt the standing- pools, 
Swans The swans that sail along the silvery flood, 

And dive with stretching necks to search their food, 
Then lave their backs with sprinkling dews in vain, 
And stem the stream to meet the promised rain. 
Crow The crow with clam'rous cries the shower demands, 
And single stalks along the desert sands. 
The nightly virgin while her wheel she plies, 
Foresees the storm impending in the skies 
Lamps When sparkling lamps their splutt'ring light advance. 
And in the sockets oily bubbles dance. 
Fine Then after show'rs 'tis easy to descry 

Weather Returning suns, and a serener sky. 

Stars The stars shine smarter ; and the moon adorns, 
Moon As with unborrowed beams, her sharpened horns. 
Gossamer The filmy gossamer now flits no more, 

Nor halcyons bask on the short sunny shore ; 
Swine Their litter is not toss'd by sows unclean ; 
Mist But a blue droughty mist descends upon the plain ; 
Owls And owls that mark the setting sun declare 
A starlight evening and a morning fair. 
Hawk and Tow'ring aloft, avenging Nisus flies, 
Lark While dar'd below the guilty Scylla lies ; 
Wherever frighted Scylla flies away, 
Swift Nisus follows and pursues his prey ; 
Where injured Nisus takes his airy course 



WEATHER WISDOM. 



89 



Various Signs of the Weather. 



Rain 

Thence trembling Scylla flies and shuns his force. 
This punishment pursues the unhappy maid, 
And thus the purple hair is dearly paid. 
Ravens Then thrice the ravens rend the liquid air, 

And croaking notes proclaim the settled fair. 

Then round their airy palaces they fly, 

To greet the sun ; and seized with secret joy, 

When storms are overblown, with food repair 

To their forsaken nests and callow care. 

Not that I think their breasts with heavenly souls 

Inspired, as man who destiny controls, 

But with the changeful temper of the skies, 

As rains condense and sunshine rarifies, 

So turn the species in their altered minds : 

Composed by calms and discomposed by winds. 

Birds From hence proceeds the birds' harmonious voice : 
cows and From hence the cows exult, and frisking lamt 

lambs rejoice. 

Virgil, " Georgics" Dry dais translation 



Various A boding silence reigns 

signs of Dread through the dim expanse ; save the dull sound 
rain That from the mountain, previous to the storm, 

Rolls o'er the muttering earth, disturbes the flood 
And shakes the forest leaf without a breath, 
Prone to the lowest vale aerial tribes 
Descend ; the tempest-loving raven scarce 
Dares wing the dubious dusk ; in rueful gaze 
The cattle stand, and on the scowling heavens 
Cast a deploring eye ; by man forsook, 
Who to the crowded cottage hies him fast, 
Or seeks the shelter of the downward cave. 

Thomson. 



Weather Well Duncombe, how will be the weather ? 

Rhyme Sir, — It looks cloudy altogether, 

And coming across our Houghton Green, 
I stopped and talked with old Frank Beane, 
While we stood there, Sir, old Jan Swain 
Went by, and said he knowed 'twould rain ; 



9 o WEATHER WISDOM. 

Various Signs of the Weather. 

Rain 

The next that came was Master Hunt, 
And he declared he knew it would'nt ; 
And then I met with farmer Blow, 
He plainly said he didn't know. 
So Sir, when doctors disagree, 
Who's to decide it, you or me ? 

This is a village rhyme written in the last century, 
and well known in Bedfordshire, where all the 
names are still found. 

Barometer The barometer rises for northerly or easterly winds, 
and for dryer, calmer, and colder weather. 

„ The barometer falls for southerly and westerly 

winds, and for damper, stormier, and warmer 
weather. 

„ Long foretold,* long last ; 

Short notice, soon past. Fitzroy. 

„ First rise after low, 

Foretells stronger blow. 

„ When the glass falls low, 

Prepare for a blow ; 
When it rises high, 
Let all your kites fly. 

Strings, Strings of catgut or whipcord untwist and become 
etc. longer during a damp state of the air, and vice 

versa. 

On this principle is constructed the weather 
house, a toy usually found in country houses, 
and from which the figure of a woman emerges 
in fine weather, while a man wrapped in a 
great coat comes out before rain. 

i 

* By the falling of the mercury. 



WEATHER WISDOM. 91 

Various Signs of the Weather. 



Ditches, Drains, ditches, and dunghills, are more offensive 
[draws, etc. before rain. 

Doors, etc. Doors and windows are hard to shut in damp 
weather. 

Salt Salt increases in weight before a shower. 

Smoke If during calm, smoke does not ascend readily, 
expect rain. 

Sounds Sounds are heard with unusual clearness before a 
storm. The railway whistle for instance seems 
remarkably shrill. 

„ A sound in air presaged approaching rain, 

And beast to covert scud across the plain. 

llws. Parnell. 



M'Corquodale & Co., Printers, 6, Cardington Street, London, K.W. 




QC Inwards, Richard (comp.) 

998 Weather lore. 

163 

P&A Sci. 



PLEASE DO NOT REMOVE 
CARDS OR SLIPS FROM THIS POCKET 



UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO LIBRARY 


 

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